2014年1月31日 星期五



The Older Mind May Just Be a Fuller Mind

It's not so much that the mental faculties of older people are rapidly declining, it's that their databases are fuller, a new study suggests.

The Older Mind May Just Be a Fuller Mind

People of a certain age (and we know who we are) don’t spend much leisure time reviewing the research into cognitive performance and aging. The story is grim, for one thing: Memory’s speed and accuracy begin to slip around age 25 and keep on slipping.
The story is familiar, too, for anyone who is over 50 and, having finally learned to live fully in the moment, discovers it’s a senior moment. The finding that the brain slows with age is one of the strongest in all of psychology.
Lisa Haney
Over the years, some scientists have questioned this dotage curve. But these challenges have had an ornery-old-person slant: that the tests were biased toward the young, for example. Or that older people have learned not to care about clearly trivial things, like memory tests. Or that an older mind must organize information differently from one attached to some 22-year-old who records his every Ultimate Frisbee move on Instagram.
Now comes a new kind of challenge to the evidence of a cognitive decline, from a decidedly digital quarter: data mining, based on theories of information processing. In a paper published in Topics in Cognitive Science, a team of linguistic researchers from the University of Tübingen in Germany used advanced learning models to search enormous databases of words and phrases.
Since educated older people generally know more words than younger people, simply by virtue of having been around longer, the experiment simulates what an older brain has to do to retrieve a word. And when the researchers incorporated that difference into the models, the aging “deficits” largely disappeared.
“What shocked me, to be honest, is that for the first half of the time we were doing this project, I totally bought into the idea of age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults,” the lead author, Michael Ramscar, said by email. But the simulations, he added, “fit so well to human data that it slowly forced me to entertain this idea that I didn’t need to invoke decline at all.”
Can it be? Digital tools have confounded predigital generations; now here they are, coming to the rescue. Or is it that younger scientists are simply pretesting excuses they can use in the future to cover their own golden-years lapses?
In fact, the new study is not likely to overturn 100 years of research, cognitive scientists say. Neuroscientists have some reason to believe that neural processing speed, like many reflexes, slows over the years; anatomical studies suggest that the brain also undergoes subtle structural changes that could affect memory.
Still, the new report will very likely add to a growing skepticism about how steep age-related decline really is. It goes without saying that many people remain disarmingly razor-witted well into their 90s; yet doubts about the average extent of the decline are rooted not in individual differences but in study methodology. Many studies comparing older and younger people, for instance, did not take into account the effects of pre-symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease, said Laura Carstensen, a psychologist at Stanford University.
Dr. Carstensen and others have found, too, that with age people become biased in their memory toward words and associations that have a positive connotation — the “age-related positivity effect,” as it’s known. This bias very likely applies when older people perform so-called paired-associate tests, a common measure that involves memorizing random word pairs, like ostrich and house.
“Given that most cognitive research asks participants to engage with neutral (and in emotion studies, negative) stimuli, the traditional research paradigm may put older people at a disadvantage,” Dr. Carstensen said by email.
The new data-mining analysis also raises questions about many of the measures scientists use. Dr. Ramscar and his colleagues applied leading learning models to an estimated pool of words and phrases that an educated 70-year-old would have seen, and another pool suitable for an educated 20-year-old. Their model accounted for more than 75 percent of the difference in scores between older and younger adults on items in a paired-associate test, he said.
That is to say, the larger the library you have in your head, the longer it usually takes to find a particular word (or pair).
Scientists who study thinking and memory often make a broad distinction between “fluid” and “crystallized” intelligence. The former includes short-term memory, like holding a phone number in mind, analytical reasoning, and the ability to tune out distractions, like ambient conversation. The latter is accumulated knowledge, vocabulary and expertise.
“In essence, what Ramscar’s group is arguing is that an increase in crystallized intelligence can account for a decrease in fluid intelligence,” said Zach Hambrick, a psychologist at Michigan State University. In a variety of experiments, Dr. Hambrick and Timothy A. Salthouse of the University of Virginia have shown that crystallized knowledge (as measured by New York Times crosswords, for example) climbs sharply between ages 20 and 50 and then plateaus, even as the fluid kind (like analytical reasoning) is dropping steadily — by more than 50 percent between ages 20 and 70 in some studies. “To know for sure whether the one affects the other, ideally we’d need to see it in human studies over time,” Dr. Hambrick said.
Dr. Ramscar’s report was a simulation and included no tested subjects, though he said he does have several memory studies with normal subjects on the way.
For the time being, this new digital-era challenge to “cognitive decline” can serve as a ready-made explanation for blank moments, whether senior or otherwise.
It’s not that you’re slow. It’s that you know so much.

2014年1月29日 星期三


2014/01/28 08:15:45


更多奢華人生的文章 »
Antique Wine Co.
2011年,一瓶1787年的滴金酒莊(Chateau d’Yquem)葡萄酒賣出了11.7萬美元的天價。


於法國波爾多南部的蘇玳 (Sauternes) 酒區,出產全球最高價的貴腐甜酒,加上擁有深金黃色的酒裙,故被人稱為波爾多的液體黃金。以排名第一的滴金酒莊(Chateau d’Yquem) 為例,曾經有一枝1811年的滴金以75,000英鎊售出,相當於75萬元人民幣,即每克差不多要1000元。對於這瓶酒來說,滴金的名字還不夠牛,應該叫“滴四金”;因為黃金每克價格只須240元,喝一滴這瓶蘇玳的甜酒,就等於喝四滴黃金了。


可能你會說:要釀制甜酒,好像喝咖啡一樣,加點糖不就成了嗎?理論上是可以的,這是一些廉價甜酒的做法,釀出來的酒像糖水一樣,是不好喝的。貴腐甜酒的做法,是讓葡萄感染了一種叫Botrytis Cinerea的細菌,它使葡萄表皮變成淡淡的灰色,看上去像一層覆上淡白色的茸毛;霉菌通過表皮上的微小穿孔進入葡萄,導致果粒內的水分減少,汁液變得更為濃縮,糖分就自然多了。在蘇玳酒區出產的葡萄,每升可達350多克糖份,在發酵到13至15度酒精之後,剩余糖分含量還有100多克,帶出金黃色的甜美味道。




蘇玳法定產區集合了蘇玳、巴薩克(Barsac)、博美(Bommes)、琺戈(Fargues)和佩納可(Preignac)五個村鎮,主要葡萄品種為長相思(Sauvignon Blanc)、賽美蓉(Semillon)和少量的密斯卡岱(Muscadelle)。在蘇玳區排名最高的酒莊,是在1855年蘇玳和巴薩克官方評級中被評為超一等的滴金;它是唯一獲此等級的酒莊,其葡萄園面積有100多公頃,年產量在10萬瓶左右。



本文作者林一鳴,中信証券國際企業高端客戶及証券業務發展主管,持有美國專業認証葡萄酒專家資格(Certified Specialist of Wine, CSW)、英國葡萄酒及烈酒教育基金會(WSET)高級葡萄酒及烈酒証書。文中所述僅代表他的個人觀點。

2014年1月27日 星期一


★ 洋蔥浸葡萄酒的驚人效果★ (轉貼)

 洋蔥是一般家庭普通的食物,用以炸、炒、煲湯都很可口,也可配以生果和蔬菜做沙律,原來用作浸葡萄酒(紅酒) ,更可治療很多我常見的病。筆者回港時一酒商朋友介紹,當時半信半疑,因他是做法酒入口酒的生意,可能是為了推銷他代理的紅酒,但他卻保證真的有這樣的療效,很多人都飲用,所以回到黃金海岸,便開始浸了瓶來試試,也把這個信息帶給大佬JOE,因其太座LILY和他有齊所有的病症,聽後大家不禁哈哈大笑。心想不用花多少錢,不妨一試,果然不試尤可,一試其功效十分顯著,連老伴也大讚好野。因不用晚間上廁所,而且發覺浸了洋蔥的紅酒入口更醇,更易入口,像筆者不懂飲酒的也可以飲用,通常筆者未試過就不敢寫出來,今次飲過之後覺得效果甚佳,就將其公開給大家,希望人人健康。
 【制法】: 一. 將洋蔥洗淨,去掉表麵茶色外皮,切成八等份約半月形; 二. 將洋蔥裝入玻璃瓶內,加入紅葡萄酒,(將剝下來的外皮也一起加入效果更好); 三. 將玻璃瓶蓋好密封,在陰涼地方放置約2​​至8日,(筆者覺得一星期最好); 四. 將玻璃瓶的洋蔥片,用濾網過濾後,洋蔥、酒分開裝入瓶中,放置在冰箱中冷藏。 【飲用方法】: 一. 每日約一杯(50毫升),年紀大的人每次20毫升左右; 二. 每日飲一至兩次; 三. 浸過酒的洋蔥片一起食用更好; 四.不喝酒的人,可用兩倍左右的開水稀釋後飲用或每次倒入電鍋內煮約4至5分鐘,蒸發酒精後飲用。五. 若然喜歡甜的,可​​加入一點蜂蜜。看到這里大家是否覺得很容易呢?究竟可以治那些病呢?讓筆者告訴大家,其功效對膝蓋疼痛、白內障、老人癡呆的效果相當驚人,日本非常流行。 ▲一、高血壓的患者,飲了之後血壓正常且安定,也會降低糖尿值,把血糖下降。 ▲二、最妙對老花眼也有很大的改善,飲用之後不用戴眼鏡也可以閱讀一般的週刊、雜誌。 ▲三​​、每晚都要去幾次廁所的夜晚頻尿症,喝了兩天之後,不可思議的完全恢復正常。每天夜裡醒來,一直到天亮都不能再入睡的,不食安眠藥不能入睡的不眠症,飲用之後也會全消除。 ▲四、眼睛疲勞和模煳不清,喝了之後第二天就沒有問題了。 ▲五、對幾乎無法治療的白尿症,尿會溷濁的之後的也變得接近透明。 ▲六、經常肚子會脹,非常痛苦的便秘症,喝了之後第二天便恢復正常排便。以上這麽多的效,若然你的年齡在中年以上一定適合,花錢不多,有益功效顯著,不妨一試。

 【實驗結果】:原來是而此,信不信由您,依照份量飲,三五天見效夜裡甜蜜睡,惡夢冇跟隨,精神身體好,健步快如飛攻打四方城,手指靈活摔,延年兼益壽,命長精神爽討厭吃洋蔥嗎? 看看下面的文章,即使它再不可口,為了身體好,也請多多食用。關心自己也關心家裡的人喔! 【洋蔥比骨質酥鬆症的藥有效】家庭主婦不愛用洋蔥做菜,處理時會讓人流眼淚,很多人也怕洋蔥味。除非是手藝高超的洋蔥料理,否則真的很難找到洋蔥的熱愛者。但是想要讓自己骨骼結實、身體長得高、預防骨質酥鬆症的人,最好還是乖乖地捏著鼻子吃洋蔥吧。因為權威期刊「自然」的最新研究報告指出,洋蔥是最能夠防止骨質流失的一種蔬菜。洋蔥預防骨質流失的效果,甚至比骨質酥鬆症治療藥品「calcitonin」還要好。研究人員讓雄性大白鼠每天吃一公克乾洋蔥,連續四週後,公白鼠的骨質平均增加了13.5-18%。另一組實驗則發現,讓大白鼠食用含有洋蔥的溷合蔬菜,也能夠減少骨質流失問題。第三組實驗則是讓摘除卵巢的雌性大白鼠每天吃1.5公克的洋蔥,結果骨質流失的速率減少了25%。更值得注意的是,洋蔥的保健功效在短短12小時內就看得到了。研究人員認為,洋蔥的效果可能來自於「預防骨質流失」,因此想要利用洋蔥保健的人,每天可能要吃上200-300公克(10盎司)的洋蔥,才能夠預防骨質酥鬆症。醫食同源,在我們日常食物中,有很多蔬菜水果都具有藥物般的療效。像西餐裡少不了的配菜洋蔥,它對身體的好處簡直超乎想像。洋蔥炒蛋,或洋蔥炒牛肉,都是美味無比的健康菜;而洋蔥還可以用來生吃或榨汁喝,根據醫學實驗,它更能發揮多種神奇療效。  
【洋蔥可以預防膽固醇過高】據哈佛醫學院心臟科教授克多格爾威治博士指出,每天生吃半個洋蔥,或喝等量的洋蔥汁,平均可增加心髒病人約30%的HDL含量(HDL為高密度脂蛋白膽固醇,一種被認為有助於預防動脈粥狀硬化的膽固醇,也是一種的好的膽固醇。) 每天生吃半個洋蔥,或喝等量的洋蔥汁,以保護心臟,這原是個民間偏方, 
 【洋蔥可以治療糖尿病】很久以前,洋蔥就被用來治療糖尿病,到了現代,醫學也證明洋蔥確實能夠降血糖;而且不論生食或熟食,都同樣有效果。原來洋蔥裡有一種抗糖尿病的化合物,類似常用的口服降血糖劑甲磺丁胺,具有刺激胰島素合成及釋放的作用。 【洋蔥還有其他多種療效】洋蔥的妙用還不止上述這些,在日常生活中,洋蔥還可用​​來防治失眠:將切碎的洋蔥放置於枕邊,洋蔥特有的刺激成分,會發揮鎮靜神經、誘人入眠的神奇功效。感冒的時候,喝加了洋蔥的熱味噌湯,很快就可發汗退燒。如果鼻塞,以一小片洋蔥抵住鼻孔,洋蔥的刺激氣味,會促使鼻子瞬間暢通起來。如果咳嗽,以紗布包裹切碎的洋蔥,覆蓋於喉嚨到胸口,也可以很快抑制咳嗽。攝取高鈣就能防止骨質的流失嗎?骨折雖不像得了癌症或愛滋病那麽令人感到震驚與絕望,但有不少老年人本來身體還蠻硬朗,然而一旦發生了骨折,突然活動量銳減,身體狀況急速下降,甚至有些人沒在下床或下輪椅而走了。骨質流失是一種不會痛,甚至也沒有感覺的生理現象,常一直到發生骨折或去測骨質密度才突然發現骨骼已經變得那麽的疏鬆了。骨骼與其他之組織不大一樣,它由『造骨細胞』和『破骨細胞』來分別擔任其『新陳』和『代謝』。當造骨細胞之活性大過破骨細胞時,骨骼會增長、增大或增加其密度;反之,則變得更疏鬆。骨骼的建造乃是先以膠原蛋白構成立體網狀之基質,然後再由鈣、鎂、鋅、磷、氟等化合物與膠原蛋白結合,添充在其空洞中,但破骨細胞也一直不斷地分解這些基質與礦物質。飲食中所攝取的鈣質是否有機會存到骨骼中而使骨骼加長(身高加長或骨質變得更緻密?其必須通過兩關的考驗,第一是其吸收率,如所攝取的鈣質不易被吸收,所攝取的鈣大多還是由糞便中排掉。因此衛生署公告的「健康食品之改善骨質疏鬆功能評估方法」的第一項測定即以其吸收率來作為評估指標,如某一食品之鈣吸收率能明顯高過一般最普遍用來做為食品添加物的碳酸鈣(CaCO3)時,可視為一健康食品。 第二是所吸收進入血液的鈣質是否能存入骨骼中?許多人誤會以為多吃鈣就一定可防止骨質流失,可惜答桉並非是肯定的。即使部分鈣被吸收了,還是要加上負重或抗阻力運動(游泳沒有幫助)來刺激甲狀腺分泌「降鈣素」(Calcitonin),它可加強造骨細胞之活性,而才能將血鈣有效的存到骨骼中。 因此,長期臥床的病人,即使攝取易吸收之高鈣,骨質還是會流失很厲害,因此在幫他翻身時,常一不小心就會發生骨折。 其實每天睡到天亮,快起床時,常破骨細胞的活性或大過造骨細胞,因此,如您怕會有骨質疏鬆症,除了多攝取優質的鈣之外,別忘了也要常做負重(在不傷到關節之範圍內)的運動。 轉自:張網✐
【溫馨提示】:洋蔥撕去外皮後,可以不用清洗,如清洗後請要待它徹底乾透後才開始浸酒,因為有水氣容易使製品發霉。文章沒提及用哪種洋蔥,但網上找來資料,紅洋蔥有網友試過,效果不錯。 ✦ 網路轉載,內容僅供參考,如需解決具體問題,  建議諮詢相關領域的專業人士。  其次,一切有益身心的食物也好,均不宜過量,  否則物極必反,均衡飲食最為重要

★ 洋蔥浸葡萄酒的驚人效果★ (轉貼) 洋蔥是一般家庭普通的食物,用以炸、炒、煲湯都很可口,也可配以生果和蔬菜做沙律,原來用作浸葡萄酒(紅酒) ,更可治療很多我常見的病。筆者回港時一酒商朋友介紹,當時半信半疑,因他是做法酒入口酒的生意,可能是為了推銷他代理的紅酒,但他卻保證真的有這樣的療效,很多人都飲用,所以回到黃金海岸,便開始浸了瓶來試試,也把這個信息帶給大佬JOE,因其太座LILY和他有齊所有的病症,聽後大家不禁哈哈大笑。心想不用花多少錢,不妨一試,果然不試尤可,一試其功效十分顯著,連老伴也大讚好野。因不用晚間上廁所,而且發覺浸了洋蔥的紅酒入口更醇,更易入口,像筆者不懂飲酒的也可以飲用,通常筆者未試過就不敢寫出來,今次飲過之後覺得效果甚佳,就將其公開給大家,希望人人健康。  

【制法】:  一. 將洋蔥洗淨,去掉表麵茶色外皮,切成八等份約半月形;  二. 將洋蔥裝入玻璃瓶內,加入紅葡萄酒,(將剝下來的外皮也一起加入效果更好);  三. 將玻璃瓶蓋好密封,在陰涼地方放置約2​​至8日,(筆者覺得一星期最好);  四. 將玻璃瓶的洋蔥片,用濾網過濾後,洋蔥、酒分開裝入瓶中,放置在冰箱中冷藏。  

【飲用方法】:  一. 每日約一杯(50毫升),年紀大的人每次20毫升左右;  二. 每日飲一至兩次;  三. 浸過酒的洋蔥片一起食用更好;  四.不喝酒的人,可用兩倍左右的開水稀釋後飲用或每次倒入電鍋內煮約4至5分鐘,蒸發酒精後飲用。五. 若然喜歡甜的,可​​加入一點蜂蜜。看到這里大家是否覺得很容易呢?究竟可以治那些病呢?讓筆者告訴大家,其功效對膝蓋疼痛、白內障、老人癡呆的效果相當驚人,日本非常流行。 ▲一、高血壓的患者,飲了之後血壓正常且安定,也會降低糖尿值,把血糖下降。 ▲二、最妙對老花眼也有很大的改善,飲用之後不用戴眼鏡也可以閱讀一般的週刊、雜誌。 ▲三​​、每晚都要去幾次廁所的夜晚頻尿症,喝了兩天之後,不可思議的完全恢復正常。每天夜裡醒來,一直到天亮都不能再入睡的,不食安眠藥不能入睡的不眠症,飲用之後也會全消除。 ▲四、眼睛疲勞和模煳不清,喝了之後第二天就沒有問題了。 ▲五、對幾乎無法治療的白尿症,尿會溷濁的之後的也變得接近透明。 ▲六、經常肚子會脹,非常痛苦的便秘症,喝了之後第二天便恢復正常排便。以上這麽多的效,若然你的年齡在中年以上一定適合,花錢不多,有益功效顯著,不妨一試。  
【實驗結果】: 原來是而此,信不信由您,依照份量飲,三五天見效夜裡甜蜜睡,惡夢冇跟隨,精神身體好,健步快如飛攻打四方城,手指靈活摔,延年兼益壽,命長精神爽討厭吃洋蔥嗎? 看看下面的文章,即使它再不可口,為了身體好,也請多多食用。關心自己也關心家裡的人喔!  
【洋蔥比骨質酥鬆症的藥有效】 家庭主婦不愛用洋蔥做菜,處理時會讓人流眼淚,很多人也怕洋蔥味。除非是手藝高超的洋蔥料理,否則真的很難找到洋蔥的熱愛者。但是想要讓自己骨骼結實、身體長得高、預防骨質酥鬆症的人,最好還是乖乖地捏著鼻子吃洋蔥吧。因為權威期刊「自然」的最新研究報告指出,洋蔥是最能夠防止骨質流失的一種蔬菜。洋蔥預防骨質流失的效果,甚至比骨質酥鬆症治療藥品「calcitonin」還要好。研究人員讓雄性大白鼠每天吃一公克乾洋蔥,連續四週後,公白鼠的骨質平均增加了13.5-18%。另一組實驗則發現,讓大白鼠食用含有洋蔥的溷合蔬菜,也能夠減少骨質流失問題。第三組實驗則是讓摘除卵巢的雌性大白鼠每天吃1.5公克的洋蔥,結果骨質流失的速率減少了25%。更值得注意的是,洋蔥的保健功效在短短12小時內就看得到了。研究人員認為,洋蔥的效果可能來自於「預防骨質流失」,因此想要利用洋蔥保健的人,每天可能要吃上200-300公克(10盎司)的洋蔥,才能夠預防骨質酥鬆症。醫食同源,在我們日常食物中,有很多蔬菜水果都具有藥物般的療效。像西餐裡少不了的配菜洋蔥,它對身體的好處簡直超乎想像。洋蔥炒蛋,或洋蔥炒牛肉,都是美味無比的健康菜;而洋蔥還可以用來生吃或榨汁喝,根據醫學實驗,它更能發揮多種神奇療效。  
【洋蔥可以預防膽固醇過高】 據哈佛醫學院心臟科教授克多格爾威治博士指出,每天生吃半個洋蔥,或喝等量的洋蔥汁,平均可增加心髒病人約30%的HDL含量(HDL為高密度脂蛋白膽固醇,一種被認為有助於預防動脈粥狀硬化的膽固醇,也是一種的好的膽固醇。) 每天生吃半個洋蔥,或喝等量的洋蔥汁,以保護心臟,這原是個民間偏方, 
【洋蔥可以分解脂肪】 克多博士在自己的診所裡對病人進行實驗,證明洋蔥確有提升好膽固醇的療效,不過洋蔥煮得越熟,越不具效果。克多博士讓診所裡的心髒病人每天吃洋蔥,結果發現洋蔥裡所含的化合物也能阻止血小板凝結,並加速血液凝塊溶解。所以,當你享用高脂肪食物時,最​​好能搭配些許洋蔥,將有助於抵銷高脂肪食物引起的血液凝塊;所以說牛排通常搭配洋蔥一起吃,是很有道理的。  
【洋蔥可以預防胃癌】 洋蔥和大蒜、大蔥、韭菜這些蔥屬蔬菜,因含有抗癌的化學物質,據研究人員在中國山東省一個胃癌罹患率很高的地方所做的調查發現,當洋蔥吃得越多,得胃癌的機率就越低。
 【洋蔥可以對抗哮喘】 洋蔥含有至少三種抗發炎的天然化學物質,可以治療哮喘。由於洋蔥可以抑制組織胺的活動,而組織胺正是一種會引起哮喘過敏症狀的化學物質;據德國的研究,洋蔥可以使哮喘的發作機率降低一半左右。  
【洋蔥可以治療糖尿病】 很久以前,洋蔥就被用來治療糖尿病,到了現代,醫學也證明洋蔥確實能夠降血糖;而且不論生食或熟食,都同樣有效果。原來洋蔥裡有一種抗糖尿病的化合物,類似常用的口服降血糖劑甲磺丁胺,具有刺激胰島素合成及釋放的作用。 
 【洋蔥還有其他多種療效】 洋蔥的妙用還不止上述這些,在日常生活中,洋蔥還可用​​來防治失眠:將切碎的洋蔥放置於枕邊,洋蔥特有的刺激成分,會發揮鎮靜神經、誘人入眠的神奇功效。感冒的時候,喝加了洋蔥的熱味噌湯,很快就可發汗退燒。如果鼻塞,以一小片洋蔥抵住鼻孔,洋蔥的刺激氣味,會促使鼻子瞬間暢通起來。如果咳嗽,以紗布包裹切碎的洋蔥,覆蓋於喉嚨到胸口,也可以很快抑制咳嗽。攝取高鈣就能防止骨質的流失嗎?骨折雖不像得了癌症或愛滋病那麽令人感到震驚與絕望,但有不少老年人本來身體還蠻硬朗,然而一旦發生了骨折,突然活動量銳減,身體狀況急速下降,甚至有些人沒在下床或下輪椅而走了。骨質流失是一種不會痛,甚至也沒有感覺的生理現象,常一直到發生骨折或去測骨質密度才突然發現骨骼已經變得那麽的疏鬆了。骨骼與其他之組織不大一樣,它由『造骨細胞』和『破骨細胞』來分別擔任其『新陳』和『代謝』。當造骨細胞之活性大過破骨細胞時,骨骼會增長、增大或增加其密度;反之,則變得更疏鬆。骨骼的建造乃是先以膠原蛋白構成立體網狀之基質,然後再由鈣、鎂、鋅、磷、氟等化合物與膠原蛋白結合,添充在其空洞中,但破骨細胞也一直不斷地分解這些基質與礦物質。飲食中所攝取的鈣質是否有機會存到骨骼中而使骨骼加長(身高加長或骨質變得更緻密?其必須通過兩關的考驗,第一是其吸收率,如所攝取的鈣質不易被吸收,所攝取的鈣大多還是由糞便中排掉。因此衛生署公告的「健康食品之改善骨質疏鬆功能評估方法」的第一項測定即以其吸收率來作為評估指標,如某一食品之鈣吸收率能明顯高過一般最普遍用來做為食品添加物的碳酸鈣(CaCO3)時,可視為一健康食品。 第二是所吸收進入血液的鈣質是否能存入骨骼中?許多人誤會以為多吃鈣就一定可防止骨質流失,可惜答桉並非是肯定的。即使部分鈣被吸收了,還是要加上負重或抗阻力運動(游泳沒有幫助)來刺激甲狀腺分泌「降鈣素」(Calcitonin),它可加強造骨細胞之活性,而才能將血鈣有效的存到骨骼中。 因此,長期臥床的病人,即使攝取易吸收之高鈣,骨質還是會流失很厲害,因此在幫他翻身時,常一不小心就會發生骨折。 其實每天睡到天亮,快起床時,常破骨細胞的活性或大過造骨細胞,因此,如您怕會有骨質疏鬆症,除了多攝取優質的鈣之外,別忘了也要常做負重(在不傷到關節之範圍內)的運動。

 轉自:張網✐【溫馨提示】: 洋蔥撕去外皮後,可以不用清洗,如清洗後請要待它徹底乾透後才開始浸酒,因為有水氣容易使製品發霉。文章沒提及用哪種洋蔥,但網上找來資料,紅洋蔥有網友試過,效果不錯。 
✦ 網路轉載,內容僅供參考,如需解決具體問題,   建議諮詢相關領域的專業人士。   其次,一切有益身心的食物也好,均不宜過量,   否則物極必反,均衡飲食最為重要

2014年1月9日 星期四

Absinthe: A literary muse

苦艾酒英語Absinthe 收聽i/ˈæbsɪnθ/ AB-sinth/ˈæbsænθ/ AB-santh; 法語Absinthe: [absɛ̃t]),歷史上描述為蒸餾的,高酒精度數(45-74%ABV,酒精純度90-148)的一種飲料[1][2][3][4]。它是一種茴香味的烈酒,從植物性藥材中萃取,其中包括苦艾(Artemisia Absinthium,又名「大艾草」Grand Wormwood)的花和葉,綠茴芹(green anise),甜茴香(sweet fennel),和其他藥材和食用香草。苦艾酒歷來有一種天然的綠色,但也有是無色的。歷史文獻中通常稱之為「法語la fée verte」(綠妖精、綠精靈、綠仙子)。雖然有時它被誤作為利口酒的一種,傳統上苦艾酒瓶裝時是不加糖的,因此,將其歸類為烈酒[5]。傳統瓶裝的苦艾酒酒精度數很高,但飲用前通常使用水進行稀釋。
18世紀後期,苦艾酒興起於瑞士納沙泰爾州(Neuchâtel)。在19世紀末和20世紀初,它成為法國大受歡迎的酒精飲料,尤其是在巴黎的藝術家和作家之間。由於其與波希米亞文化之間的因緣,苦艾酒受到社會保守主義者和禁酒主義者的反對。歐內斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)、夏爾·皮埃爾·波德萊爾(Charles Pierre Baudelaire)、保羅·魏爾倫(Paul Verlaine)、阿蒂爾·蘭波(Arthur Rimbaud)、亨利·德·土魯斯-洛特雷克(Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec)、阿梅代奧·莫迪利亞尼(Amedeo Modigliani)、文森特·梵谷(Vincent van Gogh)、奧斯卡·王爾德(Oscar Wilde)、阿萊斯特·克勞利(Aleister Crowley)以及阿爾弗雷德·雅里(Alfred Jarry)都是知名的苦艾酒的擁躉。[6]


苦艾酒英文為Absinthe,其實是一個法語單詞,在法語中一般指酒精飲料,偶爾也可以指艾草植物,包括稱為大苦艾(grande absinthe)的中亞苦蒿(Artemisia absinthium),和小苦艾(petite absinthe)的西北蒿(Artemisia pontica)。其拉丁名artemisia來自古希臘的狩獵女神阿爾忒彌斯(Artemis)。單詞Absinthe來自拉丁語Absinthium,而Absinthium又是希臘語ἀψίνθιον(apsínthion)拉丁化而成的,它們的本義都是「艾草」(wormwood)[8]。將苦艾用於飲料可以從盧克萊修(Lucretius)的著作《物性論》(De Rerum Natura(I 936-950 ))中得到引證,盧克萊修表示,含有艾草(wormwood)的飲料可以作為作為兒童的藥飲,伴著蜂蜜喝使其容易飲用。使用了詩歌的形式,將這個複雜的理念用比喻的方式講述了出來[9]
有些人聲稱,ἀψίνθιον這個詞在希臘語中的意思是「不能飲用」,但它可解析為波斯詞根spandaspand,或其變體esfand,意思是駱駝蓬(Peganum Harmala),也被稱為敘利亞芸香(Syrian Rue),但它實際上不是芸香(另一種著名的苦味的草藥)的品種。是否這個詞是從波斯語引入到希臘,或兩者從共同的語源進化而來,目前還不清楚[10]

不像蘇格蘭威士忌白蘭地金酒在 全球範圍內都規範並定義了製作方法和原料,大多數國家都沒有苦艾酒的法律定義。因此,生產者可以任意的在他們的產品上標上「苦艾酒」 ("absinthe" 或"absinth")的標籤,而不受任何法規限制,也沒有標準評判其質量。 合法的苦艾酒生產者遵循歷史上流傳的兩個製造流程中的一個:蒸餾法(distillation)或低溫混合法(cold mixing)。在那些有法規定義苦艾酒的國家(比如瑞士),只允許通過蒸餾生產苦艾酒[57]

Absinthe: A literary muse

Jane Ciabattari investigates how the powerful spirit that drove Vincent Van Gogh to cut off his ear also inspired great authors from Arthur Rimbaud to Ernest Hemingway.

Absinthe: How the Green Fairy became literature’s drink

The green stuff
Absinthe, a green liquor with ten times the alcohol content of wine and popular with legendary authors and artists, was banned for most of the past century. (Goran Heckler/Alamy)
Absinthe has inspired many great authors of the last 150 years – and may have ruined some as well. Jane Ciabattari investigates the green spirit’s peculiar power.

Arthur Rimbaud called absinthe the “sagebrush of the glaciers”  because a key ingredient, the bitter-tasting herb Artemisia absinthium or wormwood, is plentiful in the icy Val-de-Travers region of Switzerland. That is where the legendary aromatic drink that came to symbolise decadence was invented in the late 18th Century. It’s hard to overstate absinthe’s cultural impact – or imagine a contemporary equivalent.
The spirit was a muse extraordinaire from 1859, when Édouard Manet’s The Absinthe Drinker shocked the annual Salon de Paris, to 1914, when Pablo Picasso created his painted bronze sculpture, The Glass of Absinthe. During the Belle Époque, the Green Fairy – nicknamed after its distinctive colour – was the drink of choice for so many writers and artists in Paris that five o’clock was known as the Green Hour, a happy hour when cafes filled with drinkers sitting with glasses of the verdant liquor. Absinthe solidified or destroyed friendships, and created visions and dream-like states that filtered into artistic work. It shaped Symbolism, Surrealism, Modernism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and Cubism. Dozens of artists took as their subjects absinthe drinkers and the ritual paraphernalia: a glass, slotted spoon, sugar cubes – sugar softened the bitter bite of cheaper brands – and fountains dripping cold water to dilute the liquor.
Absinthe was, at its conception, not unlike other medicinal herbal preparations (vermouth, the German word for wormwood, among them). Its licorice flavor derived from fennel and anise. But this was an aperitif capable of creating blackouts, pass-outs, hallucinations and bizarre behavior, with nearly ten times the alcohol content of wine. Contemporary analysis indicates that the chemical thujone in wormwood was present in such minute quantities in properly distilled absinthe as to cause little psychoactive effect. It’s more likely that the damage was done by severe alcohol poisoning from drinking twelve to twenty shots a day. Still, the mystique remains.
Muse in a bottle
Rimbaud, Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Emile Zola, Alfred Jarry and Oscar Wilde were among scores of writers who were notorious absinthe drinkers. Jarry insisted on drinking his absinthe straight; Baudelaire also used laudanum and opium; Rimbaud combined it with hashish. They wrote of its addictive appeal and effect on the creative process, and set their work in an absinthe-saturated milieu.
In the poem Poison, from his 1857 volume The Flowers of Evil, Baudelaire ranked absinthe ahead of wine and opium: “None of which equals the poison welling up in your eyes that show me my poor soul reversed, my dreams throng to drink at those green distorting pools."
Rimbaud, who “saw poetry as alchemical, a way of changing reality” Edmund White notes in his biography of the poet, saw absinthe as an artistic tool. Rimbaud’s manifesto was unambiguous: he declared that a poet “makes himself a seer through a long, prodigious and rational disordering of all the senses.” Absinthe, with its hallucinogenic effects, could achieve just that.
Guy de Maupassant imbibed, as did characters in many of his short stories. His A Queer Night in Paris features a provincial notary who wangles an invitation to a party in the studio of an acclaimed painter. He drinks so much absinthe he tries to waltz with his chair and then falls to the ground. From that moment he forgets everything, and wakes up naked in a strange bed.
Contemporaries cited absinthe as shortening the lives of Baudelaire, Jarry and poets Verlaine and Alfred de Musset, among others. It may even have precipitated Vincent Van Gogh cutting off his ear. Blamed for causing psychosis, even murder, by 1915 absinthe was banned in France, Switzerland, the US and most of Europe.
Cultural hangover
The Green Fairy faded as a cultural influence for most of the 20th Century, to be replaced by cocktails, martinis and, in the 1960s, a panoply of mind-altering drugs. There were occasional echoes of its power, though mostly nostalgic.
Ernest Hemingway sipped the Green Fairy in Spain in the 1920s as a journalist, and later during the Spanish Civil War. His character Jake Barnes consoles himself with absinthe after Lady Brett runs off with the bullfighter in The Sun Also Rises. In For Whom the Bell Tolls, Robert Jordan brings along a canteen of the stuff. In Death in the Afternoon Hemingway explains he stopped bullfighting because he couldn’t do it happily “except after drinking three or four absinthes, which, while they inflamed my courage, slightly distorted my reflexes."
Hemingway even invented a Death in the Afternoon cocktail for a 1935 celebrity drinks book: “Pour one jigger absinthe into a Champagne glass. Add iced Champagne until it attains the proper opalescent milkiness. Drink three to five of these slowly."
In the late 20th Century, absinthe became a decadent reference point among a new generation of writers based in latter-day Bohemian outposts like San Francisco and New Orleans.
"The absinthe cauterized my throat with its flavor, part pepper, part licorice, part rot,” wrote precocious New Orleans horror writer Poppy Z Brite in a 1989 story, His Mouth Will Taste of Wormwood. The narrator and his boyfriend, jaded grave robbers, have found more than fifty bottles of the now-outlawed liquor, sealed up in a New Orleans family tomb. By the end, the narrator is fantasising about his first bitter kiss of the spirit from beyond the grave.
Still seeing green
Today’s absinthe is a “tongue-numbing drink” that “sharpens the senses,” says Lance Winters, master distiller and proprietor at St George Spirits, which offered the first legal absinthe in the US in late 2007.
“To my mind, absinthe imparts an air of the mystic, a touch of the supernatural – qualities I like in a drink now and again,” says Rosie Schaap, drinks columnist for The New York Times. She recommends “deploying the stuff with a light hand.” Her contemporary absinthe cocktails include the Fascinator – two parts gin, one part dry vermouth, two dashes of absinthe and one mint leaf.
In today’s literary circles, absinthe is more an amusement than a muse – showing up as a hipster cocktail at themed book-launch parties. Now widely available, in versions from the recently-made to the $10,000 a bottle vintage Pernod Fils, the drink seems just another popular culture reference, showing up in a Mad Men episode, as a Marilyn Manson-endorsed signature brand, Mansinthe, and inspiring innumerable drinks recipes, many of which use absinthe as a rinse, not a serious ingredient.  You can even buy absinthe dilution apps for your smartphone.
Like the splash added to a cocktail, a literary reference to absinthe today adds a whiff of atmosphere, a reminder of the provocative and form-fracturing writers of the Belle Époque – and that a spirit can indeed inspire.