|注音一式 ㄐ｜ㄣ ㄌㄢˊ|
|漢語拼音 ｊ ｎ ｌ ｎ||注音二式 ｊ ｎ ｌ ｎ|
英文勇氣為courage，更是重要。所以戴名博士在倫敦喝到牌子為Courage 的啤酒，不禁說笑話，參考《戴明修煉 II》。
|Owner(s)||Wells & Youngs|
BY MASAFUMI TATEMATSU STAFF WRITER
Hideharu Ohta, president of Daishichi Sake Brewery Co., says his sake "grows from a bud into a large flower" when it is matured for more than a year. (Eiji Hori)Hideharu Ohta stands in rice paddies where his employees are trained to farm in Nihonmatsu, Fukushima Prefecture. Surface soil has been removed due to radioactive contamination. (Eiji Hori)
It seemed fitting for Hideharu Ohta to have a presence at a dinner party that the Dutch royal family hosted at Paleis Het Loo on Dec. 14.
Ohta, 51, is Japan's unofficial ambassador of sake, the 10th chief of the brewery his ancestors founded 260 years ago.
On the table at the Dutch royal family dinner were bottles of Minowamon, a "daiginjo-shu" (very special brew) from Ohta's Daishichi Sake Brewery Co., based in Nihonmatsu, Fukushima Prefecture.
The palace stands in Apeldoorn, a little more than an hour's drive from Amsterdam. It is extremely rare for sake to be served at a dinner party of a foreign royal family.
Ohta has long undertaken a mission of spreading the message of sake abroad.
He has set his sights on global markets by appealing to taste buds with the "kimoto method," said to be the most orthodox sake brewing method.
Ohta lives by the words told to him by his mother-in-law, "Rakutenmei," which means "enjoying the mandate of heaven."
"I think the mandate of heaven for me is to pass the kimoto method, the treasure I took over, down to future generations and make its wonders better known in Japan and around the world," Ohta said.
In the kimoto method, naturally occurring lactic acids and bacteria are utiled to brew sake, without using additives.
But few brewers have used this method since World War II because the maturation process requires much more time and effort than other methods and controls are more difficult.
Ohta, who studied law at the University of Tokyo, once dreamed of becoming a political scientist but decided to take over the family business at his grandfather's request.
When he visited a French winery in 1992, Ohta was impressed because the midsize operation has a worldwide reputation.
"If wine sells this much around the world, sake is worth the same level of appraisal," Ohta thought.
Fifteen years ago, Ohta set up an organization with 12 breweries to promote exports.
While sake was already being exported, quality control was less than satisfactory in the distribution stage.
Even sake that turned yellow was being sold for prices several times higher than in Japan, so it was not necessarily enjoying a good reputation abroad.
Ohta's organization asked retailers and other businesses to maintain low-temperature distribution from breweries to storefronts.
It cut intermediate margins to hold prices down to levels 50 percent higher than those in Japan and provided information by holding seminars for sommeliers and restaurateurs.
Distribution of sake in good condition and at reasonable prices led to a sake boom in the United States.
It also became common for sake to be listed on menus at exclusive restaurants in the Netherlands and France.
In 1999, Daishichi, a midsize brewey with annual sales of 1 billion yen ($12.66 million), began taking part in Vinexpo, a major alcohol trade fair, ahead of larger competitors.
When Japan hosted the Group of Eight summit at Lake Toyako, Hokkaido, in 2008, Daishichi's sake was chosen for a toast at a dinner party for the wives of G-8 leaders.
The same year, Gault Millau, a French restaurant guide that rivals the Michelin Guide, asked Daishichi to become one of its official sponsors, the only one from Japan.
Excerpts from the interview with Ohta follow:
* * *
Question: Your brewery here in Nihonmatsu, Fukushima Prefecture, is only about 60 kilometers from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, which was crippled by the Great East Japan Earthquake. What have you done to prevent radioactive contamination?
Answer: Fortunately, buildings were not destroyed, or stored sake bottles were not broken. Upon learning of the accident at the nuclear power plant, our master brewer closed all the windows of the brewery and covered ventilation fans with vinyl sheets. With quick initial responses, the inside of the brewery was kept clean, and we have tried to maintain that condition. Vinyl sheets are hung like curtains at locations where people come and leave, and wet towels are on hand so that people who come from the outside can wipe away dust. But these are emergency measures. I am considering attaching high-performance filters to air intake ducts and installing air curtain devices along routes where materials are brought in.
Q: How has the nuclear plant accident affected your business?
A: I had been resigned to suffering damage from rumors. But many people encouraged us, saying, "Hang in there, Tohoku" and "Hang in there, Fukushima." The support we received has turned out to be far stronger than the negative impact. In April and May, we saw more sales than in average years. Officials in the distribution industry have also held a campaign to support us after confirming the safety (of our products). We appreciated that they came out in our support.
Q: You have been exporting sake aggressively since you became president in 1997.
A: Seventy percent of our exports goes to the United States. The remaining 30 percent goes to Asia--Hong Kong and Singapore--and European countries--Britain, the Netherlands and France. Exports have been gradually increasing, but they still account for less than 5 percent of our overall sales. We are focusing on establishing our brand, not increasing export volumes. We are exporting high-value added sake, such as "ginjo-shu" (special brew). If that becomes popular, we want to expand the lineup.
Q: Does the appreciation of sake differ from country to country?
A: In the United States, the sake market has expanded since around 2000. The words such as "junmai-shu" (pure rice sake) and "ginjo-shu" (special brew), are understood, and consumers drink expensive sake after understanding their value. We have seen more bloggers on sake and more operators of specialty sake stores. The market has been expanding quietly, rather than experiencing a boom.
In France, sake was wrongly associated with strong distilled spirits, such as those found in China and Vietnam. When we took part in Vinexpo for the first time in 1999, many people asked about alcohol content, believing that it must be extremely high. They looked puzzled when we told them it is 15 percent. Visitors stayed away from our booth in the morning. Today, no one asks what the alcohol content is anymore.
Q: What are the attractions of sake for people in other countries?
A: Refinement, harmony and fullness. These are the qualities inherent to sake. It is a sophisticated taste into which complex elements have blended. No particular taste, such as sourness and astringency, stands out. The Japanese word of "umami" (pleasant savory taste) has been established internationally. I think sake is an alcoholic beverage that contains "umami" most in the world.
The taste of wine depends greatly on grape harvests of that year, but the taste of sake is not necessarily determined by rice. We can produce sake reminiscent of freshly cooked rice or sake with a rich, fruity taste. In that sense, sake is an alcoholic beverage created with free will, not one governed by fate.
Q: Daishichi's sake has good body, not a light and dry taste. What are the secrets?
A: Our kimoto method can produce a flavor of complexity and harmony and a smooth texture, the characteristics that cannot be expected from simpler methods. Our sake contains elaborate ingredients, which can be brought into harmony only through maturation. Daishichi's motto is, "Leap to the farthest possible." We received the grand prize at the National New Sake Awards competition, but we decided to work for higher goals, instead of taking part in the competition. The competition is held in May, when sake has just been brewed, and I'm afraid that Daishichi's sake is not appreciated fairly at that time. When we sample just-brewed sake, we may conclude that we cannot drink it for two to three years, but that may eventually turn out to be a great brew. We are most happy when we produce such sake.
Q: Do you think your sake is appreciated globally because it is brewed with the kimoto method?
A: All ethnic groups around the world have brewed beverages, using fruits and grains found in their regions. Rice was one of the ingredients used in Japan. The kimoto method is close to where sake brewing started and to the way brewed beverages are universally around the world. I think the kimoto method shares the set of values for the world's brewed beverages, such as "a more complex and strong taste" or "growing into good sake through maturation."
Three hundred years ago, no other biotechnology as complicated and delicate as (the kimoto method) existed in the world. In a sense, I think the kimoto method is as valuable as "Genji Monogatari" (The Tale of Genji). When Murasaki Shikibu wrote the novel more than 1,000 years ago, no comparable literature existed in the world.
Jun 23rd 2011, 16:59 by The Economist online
The price of cocaine varies greatly between rich countries
EVERY year the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime publishes a report with lots of fascinating data on the production and consumption of illegal drugs around the world. This year's report highlights a few interesting trends: despite all the effort put into the war on drugs, the street price of cocaine in Europe has dropped relentlessly over the past two decades (even adjusting for inflation and impurity). This may explain why Europe is now almost as big a market for cocaine producers as America. The numbers we have picked out below show the variations in price between a selection of different countries, as well as consumption per person in those places.
The Singapore Sling is a cocktail that was developed sometime before 1915 by Ngiam Tong Boon (嚴崇文), a bartender working at the Long Bar in Raffles Hotel Singapore. The original recipe used gin, Cherry Heering, Bénédictine, and fresh pineapple juice, primarily from Sarawak pineapples which enhance the flavour and create a foamy top.
Most recipes substitute bottled pineapple juice for fresh juice; soda water has to be added for foam. The hotel's recipe was recreated based on the memories of former bartenders and written notes that they were able to discover regarding the original recipe. One of the scribbled recipes is still on display at the Raffles Hotel Museum.
Recipes published in articles about Raffles Hotel prior to the 1970s are significantly different from current recipes, and "Singapore Slings" drunk elsewhere in Singapore differ from the recipe used at Raffles Hotel.
The current Raffles Hotel recipe is a heavily modified version of the original, most likely changed sometime in the 1970s by Ngiam Tong Boon's nephew. Today, many of the "Singapore Slings" served at Raffles Hotel have been pre-mixed and are dispensed using an automatic dispenser that combines both alcohol and pineapple juice to pre-set volumes. They are then blended instead of shaken to create a nice foamy top as well as to save time because of the large number of orders. However, it is still possible to request a shaken version from bartenders.
By the 1980’s the Singapore Sling was often little more than gin, bottled sweet and sour, and grenadine. With the move towards fresh juices and the re-emergence of quality products like Cherry Heering the cocktail has again become a semblance of its former self.
日本地酒協同組合是一個日本酒的同業組織，在日本這種日本酒同業組織有很多個，最大的應該是「日本名門酒會」。從今年台灣因WTO開 放日本酒進口以來，已然有許多品牌的日本酒陸續引進台灣，有的代理商更直接和這類同業組織合作，引進該組織所屬會員酒廠的產品。本次試酒會就是日本地酒協 同組合進入台灣市場的發表會，總共有九家會員酒廠參與這次活動，其中有知名度很高的，也有甚少聽聞到的酒廠。各家酒廠在會場的攤位是依照酒廠所在地由北到 南的順序，從左向右一字排開，因此我也依照這個順序喝過去。這次來的酒廠都各有特色，且水準頗高。以下介紹本次試酒會中各酒廠和試飲的產品：
While sales in traditional markets are still strong, emerging markets in Asia and Latin America are providing sustainable growth and encouraging tremendous investment by industry players. Laura Schweiger travelled to Scotland to find out why, when it comes to Scotch whisky, the world is thirsting for more.Rural Scotland is profiting from the world's thirst for whisky
[Alteration of CREATURE.]
REGIONAL NOTE Critter, a pronunciation spelling of creature, actually reflects a pronunciation that would have been very familiar to Shakespeare: 16th- and 17th-century English had not yet begun to pronounce the -ture suffix with its modern (ch) sound. This archaic pronunciation still exists in American critter and in Irish creature, pronounced (krā'tŭr) and used in the same senses as the American word. The most common meaning of critter is "a living creature," whether wild or domestic; it also can mean "a child" when used as a term of sympathetic endearment, or it can mean "an unfortunate person." In old-fashioned speech, critter and beast denoted a large domestic animal. The more restricted senses "a cow," "a horse," or "a mule" are still characteristic of the speech in specific regions of the United States. The use of critter among younger speakers almost always carries with it a jocular or informal connotation.
《南德意志报》的评论写道："葡萄酒在法国不是什么随便享用的饮料，而是国饮和文化资产。法国人自认为是具有数千年悠久历史的葡萄种植传统 的继承者，有时将它维护到过分的地步。这就说明，对于一家中国的国有集团公司在波尔多（Bordeaux）地区购买一个酒庄，法国人为什么现在会如此的不 快。波尔多在全球已成为法兰西酒文化的代名词。
"此外，所涉及的一块种植园叫拉蓝-德-波美侯（den Lalande-de-Pomerol），不仅名字好听，而且出产公认的好酒。……中国的中粮集团，一个年营业额超过210亿美元的综合体，收购了那里的 老河城堡（Château de Viaud）。议定的售价没有公开，私下传说是1000万欧元。对这家国有康采恩来说这并不多，但对一个20公顷大小的葡萄园来说可是很多的钱了。"
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 波尔多是法国酒文化的代名词评 论接着写道："于是，嗜好葡萄酒的自豪的法国人纳闷，中国人在打什么主意。从2008年以来，他们已经收购了3个葡萄酒庄。这以往一直都是超级富豪的私人 消遣，现在第一次由一家国有康采恩出手，也就引起怀疑。为什么付出如此昂贵的价格？答案引起一种复杂的感觉，一方面出于满意的自我证明：即波尔多出产卓越 的葡萄酒，当然有其价值。另一方面还有一种怀疑，认为中国人只想获取葡萄种植的技艺，仿佛对这种人们自公元前6000年就已开始从事的手艺还有什么秘密可 言。"
评论指出："这个反应本身也体现了法国人整体上对全球化的顾虑，具体而言则表明他们对中国的影响在全球不断增长的不满。法国人还不知道应该如何应付 日益强大的中国人，有时导致可笑的后果。法国年初指责中国，称其刺探汽车制造商雷诺（Renault），以获得制造电动汽车的技术，现已证实完全没有根 据。"
"另一方面，有买家也就总有卖家，这个卖家是法国人。菲利普·拉乌(Pierre Raoux）有足够的理由相信，做了一笔好生意，不仅因为谣传的售价，而且也还因为购买合同规定了与中国的长期销售合作。拉乌还拥有其它葡萄酒庄园，生产 能力为数万瓶，他想尽可能多地向中国供货。拉乌不得不与中国人苦苦谈了两年，直到中国人接受这个条款，现在他有良好的出口前景。"
文章最 后写道："中国现在已经是除了欧洲之外波尔多葡萄酒的最大买主，尽管那里的人均消费每年还不到半升。与法国人平均每人每年喝50升相比，往上还大有余地。 就这一点而言，亦可明白中国公司对法国葡萄庄园的兴趣，以及法国人对大甩卖的恐惧。要是中国人有朝一日象如今的法国人那样尽情享用的话，波尔多（葡萄酒） 会出现紧缺。"
從古至今，日本生產名酒之處皆離河川不遠。釀酒所用的水大多是由河川直接取得或是抽取地下水。雖然水是生產清酒的主要原料之一，但廠商並沒有標示水 質及水源地的義務。然而這並不意味著廠商在這方面不需要受到監督，事實上在建廠開始生產清酒之前，廠商需將水源地的水送交地方的釀造試驗所與食品試驗所接 受測試。
在尚未進入科學時代之前，古人們的釀酒方式為將米與水混合，使原本就存在於空氣之中的酵母自然增生，尤其是使用酒窖中大量存在的酵母。主因是酒窖中 存在的酵母通常是以該酒窖中所存放的酒類佔多數。然而這樣缺乏科學化管理的製造技術有許多的缺點，因為製造者無法控制該次發酵會取得何種酵母。也因為如 此，因此能否釀造出品質優良的酒類只能仰賴運氣，造成了酒類品質的低落與原料的浪費。
Reuters January 17, 2011 – 7:33 am
Glenn Baglo / Vancouver Sun
The Trenta is 7 ounces larger than Starbucks’ “Venti” (shown here) for iced drinks, which currently is its largest size on offer
LOS ANGELES — Starbucks Corp will roll out its biggest drink size yet — the 31-ounce ”Trenta” — in all of its U.S. coffee shops by May 3, the company said Sunday
The new size will be available only for iced coffee, iced tea and iced tea lemonade drinks in the United States. The Trenta is 7 ounces larger than Starbucks’ “Venti” cup for iced drinks, which currently is its largest size on offer.
Drinks in the Trenta size will cost 50 cents more than similar Venti-sized iced drinks, the company said.
Seattle-based Starbucks tested the new size in several U.S. markets last year, saying it was responding to customer demand for larger cold beverages.
The Trenta size will debut in 14 states, including Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Texas, Hawaii and Arizona, on Jan. 18 and in California on Feb. 1.
The world’s biggest coffee chain said unsweetened drinks in the new size will have fewer than 90 calories and that sweetened versions will have less than 230 calories.
Last year, I wrote a column that wondered why Paris doesn’t have better coffee. Or, to quote Duane Sorenson of Stumptown Coffee Roasters, “Why does the coffee in Paris suck so bad?”
The flurry of comments that followed was split between agreement and outrage. (“Is this article a bit of cultural imperialism?” asked one. “A better question is why America sucks so bad,” wrote another.) Since then, I’ve been back to Paris and I can report that the coffee is improving. Little by little.
To be clear, most of the coffee in Paris is still rote. The beans are still old and over-roasted, the machines are still second-rate and poorly maintained, and the person behind the bar is still more concerned with continuing his or her conversation than pulling a good shot. Robusta is still popular, as is ultra-pasteurized milk.
But there are some new developments changing things for the better.
Last spring, Café Lomi, a small-batch roaster, opened in the 17th Arrondissement. Then in August it hosted the first Frog Fight, a throwdown that, in its own words, is “organisé par des baristas pour des baristas.” The winner competes for the right to baby-sit the trophy, pictured above, until the following Frog Fight. (The next one will be held at Café Lomi on Thursday, Jan. 13.) The throwdowns are lively, good-natured, a breath of indie air in a city where massive corporations dominate the coffee industry.
Frog Fight is organized by Thomas Lehoux and David Flynn, who met when working at le Cafeotheque (52, rue de l’Hôtel-de-Ville, 011-33-1-53-01-83-84), an artisanal roaster and cafe in the Cité des Arts. Lehoux is currently training for the French Barista Championship, to be held in Lyon later this month, while Flynn works at Le Bal (6 Impasse de la Défense, 011-33-1-44-70-75-51; www.le-bal.fr), a casual, spare restaurant in the front of a converted 1920s dance hall just off the Place de Clichy. After going on a few coffee crawls in Paris, it became clear that le Bal stands apart. In fact, in my opinion, Le Bal has the best coffee in Paris.
Le Bal is actually an arts institute. There are cavernous exhibition spaces and an excellent bookstore, with a cinema right around the corner. The building is tucked away on a dead-end cobblestone street in what was once a working-class area.
The restaurant opened in the fall with Alice Quillet and Anna Trattles in the kitchen. The two chefs spent time at Rose Bakery (on the nearby rue des Martyrs) and St. John (in London), and the food they cook is confident, flavorful — whole lamb kidneys with toast, meaty hunks of oxtail in rich broth. Lunch and dinner are popular, while weekend brunches are a madhouse. Go early, or prepare to stand in line.
The restaurant doesn’t open until 10 a.m. Wednesday through Sunday (it’s closed Monday and Tuesday), which is a little late for the morning’s first coffee. But it’s worth the wait. Flynn once worked at Murky Coffee, the almost-legendary Washington, D.C. coffee shop that closed in 2009, and he has the poise and authority of an expert barista. The espresso, made with Café Lomi coffee, is tight and bright; the cappuccino is rich and satisfying. In what might be a first for Paris, Chemex coffee is brewed to order.
Le Bal is just the most exceptional of a new crop of Paris cafes. Recently,the stalwart Le Cafeotheque was joined by Merce and the Muse (1 bis rue Dupuis; 011-33-9-53-14-53-04), which opened in the fashionable northern end of the Marais. Soon Coutume Café (47 rue de Babylone) will be roasting beans in a storefront a short, brisk walk from the Bon Marché. Until construction is completed, there’s a la Marzocco FB-80 set up on a cart in front of a tarp next to the sidewalk.
For the most part, coffee in Paris still sucks so bad, but it’s getting better, and the scene forming around the monthly Frog Fight is a peek into what might be the city’s future. Now, a handful of Paris cafes have good coffee. Depending on who’s behind the bar, the coffee can be great.