2016年12月31日 星期六

Here's a toast to 2017!

Happy New Year to all from the British Library. Here's a toast to 2017!

Tips for Creating a Home for Aging Owners

If you are redoing a bathroom, grab bars save lives, experts say. These and the teak seat are by Moen. CreditMoen
A range of renovations and adjustments can be made to our apartments or houses to help us stay in our homes for as long as possible.


Add grab bars. There are many stylish models for the bathroom that look like a towel or shampoo rack but are sturdy enough to support 500 pounds of weight if properly installed, says Chrysanne Eichner, a senior occupational therapist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. You can also add grab bars by the top or foot of the stairs.
Replace doorknobs with lever handles that are easier to open.
Increase lighting and replace toggle switches with either a dimmer or a rocker switch.
Think about color contrast. If you have stairs, place reflective tape at the edge of steps so you can see where each one ends. Use a brightly colored bath mat so you can see where you’ll be stepping down after bathing.
Make a decision about your throw rug, which can present a trip hazard. Secure the rug to the floor with double-sided tape, throw it out, or hang it on the wall as a tapestry, Ms. Eichner suggests.
Select light fixtures with two bulbs. If one goes out, you’ll still have light from the other bulb.
Add a lazy susan to corner shelves to make it easier to reach items at the back of a cupboard.
Rearrange items in your kitchen seasonally. Crockpots, for example, can be stored on a higher shelf over the summer, says Barbara Roth, an interior designer in Manhattan.


Replace a standard toilet, usually between 14 and 15 inches high, with a comfort-height toilet, which is 17 to 19 inches high.
Custom-build a movable kitchen island.
Widen doorways for walker and wheelchair access.


A major kitchen overhaul could include lowering counters and installing sinks that have space underneath to accommodate wheelchairs and walkers. Alternatively, if you are tall and have back problems, consider increasing the counter height. Install shelves that slide out.
Remove the bathtub and install a walk-in shower with a seat. Get a hand-held shower head.
Build a ramp or install a chairlift wherever you have steps.

Other Tips

Useful guides include the city’s Aging in Place Guide for Building Owners report and AARP’s online HomeFit Guide.
Consult an occupational therapist, an interior designer, an architect and/or a contractor who has age-in-place certifications.
For low-income households needing modifications, there is help. Individuals or families making less than 80 percent of an area’s median income as defined by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development can fill out an application at Rebuilding Together NYC, a nonprofit organization that makes free repairs and modifications. Lending services can be found through nonprofit organizations, including Neighborhood Housing Services of New York City and the Parodneck Foundation.

香檳泡泡學 A Universe of Bubbles in Every Champagne Bottle

Bubbles in a hexagonal pattern on the surface of a champagne flute. CreditGérard Liger-Belair
A cork pops. The sudden change in pressure releases carbon dioxide trapped in the bottle. Bubbles form. They ride along as liquid falls from the bottle to your champagne glass. Once inside, a million of them cling against its edges before rising to the top and bursting — like supernovas — as soon as they hit the air. The explosion releases tiny droplets of liquid, and for a moment, your mouth contains a universe. The droplets dart across it like shooting stars that crash against your tongue. The aromatic landing of the fermented grapes is sharp, crisp, sweet, dry, delicate, delightful. This may be how you welcome 2017.
At least, that’s how some scientists have done it this year. For an issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics, to be released in January, they follow carbon dioxide from where it first becomes trapped in grapes on vines until it enters the bottle and formsrises and eventually bursts and evaporates in your glass. Each pop along the way helps enhance the drink’s aroma.
Even though bubbles are part of our everyday lives, much about how they behave is still mysterious. By studying them in sparkling beverages, scientists learn how their basic mechanics and chemistry can be applied, from better tasting wine to more efficient energy.
The journey starts with grapes, which contain sugars on the inside and yeast on the skin. Breaking the skin kicks off a fermentation process, resulting in the release of alcohol and carbon dioxide. The gas escapes through open barrels where wine is first made.
But once wine goes inside a champagne bottle, a second fermentation process begins and the carbon dioxide is trapped by the cork. There it dissolves into the liquid, taking up space and causing pressure to build through a process called Henry’s Law. Although a bit of carbon dioxide will escape, most of it stays trapped until the bottle is uncorked, which, by the way, is also a science. For example, one study found that cooling a bottle to 39 degrees before serving causes trapped gas to expand less rapidly. That means when you pop the cork, it will fly at about three-quarters of the speed it would at room temperature.
Once inside your glass, the bubbles will start to congregate at the liquid’s surface. They touch one another, forming a hexagonal pattern. And where the liquid meets air, the bubbles burst.
Gérard Liger-Belair, a physicist at the University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne in France, and his team, which conducted one of the studies, captured this with high-speed cameras. The images showed that when one bubble burst, it left behind an empty space that others stretched out to occupy until they themselves burst, quickly resulting in a spray in the air. New bubbles moved up to the surface, where they burst and the process continued.
Thomas Séon, a physicist at Pierre and Marie Curie University in France, and his colleagues, found that each bubble’s spray contained tiny droplets full of concentrated aromas and flavors, or volatile compounds that you can smell and taste. An aroma can vary, depending on bubbling speed, a single bubble’s size, temperature of the liquid and even the shape of the glass. Some people say that tiny bubbles flowing constantly make a tastier drink, but actually, the researchers found, big bubbles do because they release more aromatic spray.
For a bubblier glass of sparking wine, allow your bottle to warm up for a little while after taking it out of the refrigerator or off the ice. Be careful — the cork from the warmer bottle might fly out faster. Pour into a narrow glass at an angle. Now sip. And as you share your newfound knowledge of bubbles with your fellow New Year’s Eve revelers, perhaps the ones who appreciate it are the ones to keep around in 2017.

2016年12月13日 星期二

美國 60歲至 85歲服用精神病藥品者比率高

The study also found that older adults, between the ages of 60 and 85, are now the highest users of psychiatric medicines.

One in six Americans takes psychiatric drugs, study says

"Healthy Aging: A Lifelong Guide to Your Well-Being" 死前臥床時間 比國外高出7年?

Ben Chen Aging,如何比較輕松的老去是大學問
台灣人平均死前臥床時間 比國外高出7年 | ETtoday 東森新聞雲

“What part of ourselves needs to evaporate in order to concentrate our essence? What do we have to let go?”
― from "Healthy Aging: A Lifelong Guide to Your Well-Being" by Andrew Weil, M.D.
In each of his widely acclaimed, best-selling books, Dr. Andrew Weil has been an authoritative and companionable guide through a uniquely effective combination of traditional and nontraditional approaches to health and healthy living. Now he gives us a book about aging that is unlike any other. Drawing on the new science of biogerontology (the biology of aging) as well as on the secrets of healthy longevity — diet, activity and attitude — Dr. Weil explains that there are a myriad of things we can do to keep our bodies and minds in good working order through all phases of life. Hugely informative, practical, and uplifting, Healthy Aging is infused with the engaging candor and common sense that have made Dr. Weil our most trusted source on healthy living. READ an excerpt here:http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/187978/healthy-aging/

2016年12月11日 星期日


Post on: 十二月 8, 2016 

「當歐美只有 20% 的人在醫院過世,亞洲卻剛好相反。」
啟示出版社於 11 月底出版了日本高齡者臨終醫療學會醫師宮本顯二、宮本禮子夫婦的《不在病床上說再見》,探討另一種臨終的選擇。宮本醫師主張人到老時應順應自然生息,不應違背人的尊嚴,用各種無效醫療延長人類的痛苦餘命。
適逢衛福部昨日宣布第 2 階段長照 2.0 試辦計畫啟動,是時候思考即將在 2025 年邁入超高齡社會(65 歲以上老年人口占總人口比例達 20%)的臺灣,是否能帶領新一代的老年長者,在生命的終點走得更快樂。


不管哪一本關於社會福利的書刊,都會提到在歐洲的人權社福大國丹麥、瑞典等國,沒有所謂的長期臥床的老人。我不禁想知道其它國家的情況,因此在學會的邀請演講中,請教了幾位來自英國、美國、澳洲的醫師,他們的回答是:「在我們國家,也沒有長臥在床的老人。」相對的,在日本的老人醫院呢? 不必我多說,長年臥病在床、無法行動,正在做中心靜脈注射或經腸道營養的老人不計其數。
我在瑞典找到了答案。2007 年,我和同為醫師、專攻失智症醫療的妻子一起,經由塔克曼醫師的引薦,有幸拜訪位於斯德哥爾摩近郊的醫院及老人照護設施。如我們的預想,諸院所中,連一位長臥的老人都沒有。不僅如此,也沒有任何一位高齡患者使用胃造口或經腸道營養法。
入住瑞典高齡者照護機構的人,除了仍能享受人生中的美食和美酒,還擁有可貴的自由。由於失智症患者會迷路,因此在散步時會有看護員隨行在側,避免發生意外。我們在機構中認識的一名 80 歲女性失智症患者,每天定時都要出門散步,但固執拒絕看護隨行。硬要阻止她單獨出門的話,她會打破窗子逃出去,因此機構在和家屬會商之後,決定讓她攜帶具有衛星定位功能的手機,允許她每天進行 2 小時的單獨散步。
2007 年,一位失智症男性患者(當時 91 歲),趁家屬及看護疲勞以至於不注意時,出門獨自行動,意外死於平交道事故。日本 JR 東海鐵路公司對其家屬提出賠償告訴,繼而掀起嚴重的議題。由於一、二審時家屬皆認同照護過失,因此最後判決死者 91 歲的妻子必須對 JR 東海鐵路公司支付賠償金。如果最高法院也做出同樣的判決定讞,無疑地,全日本的失智症患者將面臨此後被徹底禁閉在家中的命運。這怎麼可以呢!像這種因為失智症患者引發的損害事故,不應當由家屬進行賠償,受害者(本案例中為 JR 東海鐵路公司)應向社會性的賠償制度求償才對。
瑞典在 1992 年曾進行保健福祉改革。這是因為整個社會系統都面臨高齡化及金融危機,社會保障財政大為吃緊,其改革的目的在於解除住院普遍化的問題,以及提高高齡者的生活品質。保健福祉改革最後將醫療劃分給政府負責,而社福、福祉院所則交由各市、鄉、鎮負責,當時約有 540 間長期照護院所轉型為照護之家,改由各地方市、鄉、鎮系統負責管理營運。
當患者在醫院的治療告一段落後,各地方市、鄉、鎮公所不得不盡快為患者找到適當的收容院所,因為當患者遲遲不出院,自第 5 天開始,醫療費用規定必須由各地方市、鄉、鎮公所負擔。這樣一來,各地方市、鄉、鎮公所自然會加快速度為患者安排出院。此外,患者的住院時間也比日本短很多,心肌梗塞大約 5 天、乳癌或骨折則在手術當天就會出院移往照護機構。但也因此,形成許多人因復健不完全而落入輪椅生活、檢查不完全等各種問題,照護之家在無形間也被迫背負原本醫院負責的範圍。
當入住者過世後,醫師也沒有必要火速趕到現場,遺體會保管在照護院所中 2-3 天,醫師在這期間內過來確認死亡開立證明即可。
原本我想,瑞典不做延命醫療,平均壽命想來會比日本短,在經過調閱普查資料後發現,2012 年瑞典平均壽命為 81.7 歲,日本為 83.1 歲,意外的,落差遠沒有想像中大。也就是說,日本在各階段極力進行沉重的臨終期醫療及延命措施之後,壽命也不過就延長了一年半而已。

澳洲人 七十歲才能退休; 德國央行:德國退休年齡應推遲到69歲








2016年12月10日 星期六

老年人需要較少睡眠的真實原因 - BBC 主页

美國睡眠基金會(National Sleep Foundation)召集了一個專家委員會,在審閱了320項研究後,提出了64歲以下成年人每天睡七到九小時、65歲以上七到八小時的建議。