家堀內秀的名言。堀內秀筆名稻田納達（なだいなだ，源自西班牙文"nada y nada"，意為『沒啥、沒啥』）。1953年畢業於慶應義塾大學醫學院,。早年留法，娶法國老婆。其妻是日本70年代推介法蘭西文化的紅人。堀內秀也是日本酒精中毒醫療、研究的先輩與權威。身為精神科專業，他擅長從「後設」、穿透表像的立場審時度勢。他說，醫生的職責是「看透人性，讓其自身的光明、陰暗像鏡子一樣被折射而出」。他主張不應「治療」酒精依存症者，而應與患者「共伴」心病心藥醫。堀內秀著作一簍筐，文筆幽默親和，博客上的隨筆、時論粉絲極多。他曾6次入圍芥川獎，但終究擦身而過。堀內秀2003年發表驚動社會的「老人黨宣言」，並積極在網路籌組虛擬政黨「老人黨」，矢志加速日本財團、國家主義政黨的輪替。日本政經的虛弱慘況，被他比喻成重度肺炎，「三不五時的政權換手，也不過像病患暫時退燒。」，治標難治本。堀內秀寫作《權威與權力》，渴望一個權威與權力退位的烏托邦。現實肯定不鳥他，可他一世樂觀。他稱自己為「懷抱希望的絕望者」。他對當前的安倍政權始終持懷疑態度，一度表示，「當前民心之浮躁，也該觸頂了吧」。堀內秀幾年前罹攝護腺癌，癌末時光，他惦掛身邊憂慮的親人勝過自己；網誌上他寫下－「臨終的我，或許最輕鬆吧。」2013年6月6日，83歲的堀內秀，離世。
Updated information on the increasingly consolidated world beer market
More material on the history of beer, especially in the United States
Expanded sections on the various styles of beer
Large targeted audience of domestic home-brewers, microbreweries and beer connoisseurs
Convenient, useful information on brewing all in one well-priced volume
Table of Contents
FOREWORD by Professor Graham Stewart PREFACE PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1. FROM SUMERIA TO SAN FRANCISCO: The World of Beer and Breweries 2. GRAIN TO GLASS: The Basics of Malting and Brewing 3. EACH TO HER OWN: BEER STYLES 4. EYES, NOSE AND THROAT: The Quality of Beer 5. THE HEART AND SOUL OF BEER: Malt 6. WATER AND GENUINE TERROIR 7. THE WICKED AND PERNICIOUS WEED: Hops 8. COOKING AND CHILLING: The Brewhouse 9. GODDISGOODE: Yeast and Fermentation 10. REFINING MATTERS: Downstream Processing 11. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: How beer is analyzed 12. TO THE FUTURE: Malting and Brewing in Years to Come Appendix One:SOME SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES Appendix Two: GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS BOOK FURTHER READING INDEX
Charles Bamforth is Chair of the Department of Food
Science & Technology and Anheuser-Busch Endowed Professor of
Malting & Brewing Sciences at the University of California, Davis
by same author Bamforth, Charles. Scientific Principles of Malting and
Brewing Amer. Assn. of Cereal Chemists, 2006. $79.95. 256 pp. Bamforth,
Charles. Beer: Health and Nutrition, Charles W. Bamforth,
Wiley-Blackwell: 2004. $158.99. 200 pp. Bamforth, Charles. Beer: Tap
Into the Art and Science of Brewing 2e. New York: OUP, 2003. $27.95. 256
pp. LTD: 5,047 Bamforth, Charles. Standards of Brewing. Brewers
Publications, 2002. $39.95. 250 pp.
China's elderly are poor, sick and
depressed in alarming numbers, according to the first large-scale survey
of those over 60, an immense challenge for Beijing and one of the
greatest long-term vulnerabilities of the Chinese economy.
survey of living conditions for China's 185 million elderly paints a
bleak picture that defies the efforts of the government to build what it
calls a 'harmonious society,' one dedicated to human welfare rather
than simply economic growth. Of the generation that built China's
economic boom, 22.9%─or 42.4 million─live in poverty with consumption of
less than 3,200 yuan a year ($522).
The fear of being old and
poor, which prompts many Chinese to stash away their earnings, also cuts
against another of Beijing's priorities: to rebalance the economy
toward stronger consumption.
The survey, led by Chinese and
international academics, covered 17,708 individuals across 28 of China's
31 provinces and was partly funded by the Chinese government through a
science foundation. While careful to credit the government with progress
on expanding pension and health-care coverage, it also showed that
physical disability and mental-health problems are widespread: Of those
surveyed, 38.1% reported difficulty with daily activities and 40% showed
high symptoms of depression.
International comparisons are made
difficult by definitional issues. But rates of poverty, disability and
depression in China all appear relatively high. The poverty rate for
Americans aged over 65 is 8.7% according to the Census Bureau. The U.S.
Health and Retirement Study found that 26% to 27% of elderly Americans
had a disability, and depression rates are also markedly lower than in
John Strauss, a professor at the University of Southern
California and one of the leaders of the project, pointed to China's
relatively low level of development as part of the explanation for
higher poverty levels there. 'We need to remember that China is still a
developing economy, it is not yet a high-income country,' he said.
aging population means the problems are compounded. The number of old
people for every hundred working-age members of the population─known as
the dependency ratio─will rise from 11 in 2010 to 42 in 2050, according
to projections from the United Nations.
Other countries will also
see a rise in the dependency ratio. But the pace of aging in China is
particularly marked─a consequence of the one-child policy.
survey finds that 88.7% of the elderly who require assistance with daily
activities receive it from family members. But the one-child policy and
the migration of many young people to China's cities for work threaten
to erode the traditional approach of children caring for elderly
China is also unique in encountering a serious problem
with aging while still a poor country. 'Other countries are old and
rich,' said Albert Park, a professor at Hong Kong University of Science
and Technology and another survey leader. 'China will be old at a
relatively early stage in its development.'
Yu Baihui is one of
many who have fallen through the cracks. Aged 73, Ms. Yu lives with her
husband in a dilapidated house in Rensha, a town of 31,000 on the edges
of Chongqing in western China. Like many of China's impoverished
elderly, she is a former farmer, too old to benefit from the booming
economythat has swept the younger generation into China's factories,and
passed over by a benefit system that is skewed in favor of urbanites.
parents don't have any pension or other allowance,' said Luo
Zhengfeng─Ms. Yu's son, who works selling umbrellas and tour maps in
Chongqing to support his wife, child and aging parents.
turbulent history also appears to have had an impact on the generation
that lived through it. 'China's elderly experienced famine in the 1950s,
and the disturbance of the Cultural Revolution,' said Mr. Park. 'Those
early experiences leave a marked impact on physical and mental health.'
theory, respect for elders is deeply ingrained in China's culture.
Confucius, China's cultural lodestone who has enjoyed a revival in
popularity as leaders search for new sources of legitimacy, advocated
the honoring of all old people.
On a visit to an old people's
home in Tianjin in 2009, former President Hu Jintao echoed those
sentiments and set the tone for government pronouncements on China's
aged. 'Respecting and caring for the elderly is not only a Chinese
tradition, but also a symbol of national civilization and progress,' he
Mr. Hu advocated a more inclusive form of development, with
expansion of public pension and health-care coverage. The results of
the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study suggest those efforts
haven't so far been sufficient.
Widespread poverty in old age
also undermines China's attempt to put the economy on an even keel, with
lower saving and investment and higher consumption. Despite rapid
increases in wages─which rose 14% last year for workers in the private
sector according to official data─ households remain unwilling to spend.
One reason: the need to guard against poverty in old age. 'I hope the
government is stung by conscience and puts more money into pensions,'
said Cecilia Wang, a 30-year-old translator at a business magazine in
Beijing, 'but as they don't we have to save ourselves.'
enjoyed some success in expanding the welfare system. Pension coverage
for urban residents has expanded from 155 million in 2003, when Mr. Hu
took over, to 304 million in 2012, according to data from the Ministry
of Human Resources and Social Security. Pension coverage for rural
residents has grown even more rapidly. But the benefits provided by the
expanded schemes remain inadequate in many cases. The survey shows that
on average, recipients of the government's basic rural pension receive
just 720 yuan a year.
More than 90% of the elderly population is
now covered by health insurance, but out-of-pocket costs remain high.
'Mom had a stroke last year, and the hospital charged 18,000 yuan, but
we could claim back only 1,000 yuan from insurance,' said Mr. Luo, the
Chongqing umbrella seller. The 17,000 yuan in out-of-pocket costs
equaled almost half of his annual income.
'China's government is
aware of the problem and addressing it aggressively,' said Mr. Park. But
there are few easy answers. With a growing number of elderly relying on
a shrinking workforce, the existing system of care inside the family
appears untenable. But more generous pension and health-care benefits
risks putting a sharply increased strain on the public finances.