2012年9月27日 星期四

The Oxford Companion to Wine, Empire of Pleasures : Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World

The Oxford Companion to Wine

Third Edition


ISBN13: 9780198609902ISBN10: 0198609906 hardback, 840 pages
Aug 2006, In Stock

Price:

$65.00 (02)


Description

Published in 1994 to worldwide acclaim, the first edition of Jancis Robinson's seminal volume immediately attained legendary status, winning every major wine book award including the Glenfiddich and Julia Child/IACP awards, as well as writer and woman of the year accolades for its editor on both sides of the Atlantic. Combining meticulously-researched fact with refreshing opinion and wit, The Oxford Companion to Wine offers almost 4,000 entries on every wine-related topic imaginable, from regions and grape varieties to the owners, connoisseurs, growers, and tasters in wine through the ages; from viticulture and oenology to the history of wine. Tracing the consumption and production from the ancient world to the present day, the Companion is a remarkable resource for gaining further appreciation for a beverage whose popularity has only increased with time.

Now exhaustively updated, this third edition incorporates the very latest international research to present over 400 new entries on topics ranging from globalization and the politics of wine to brands, precision viticulture, and co-fermentation. Hundreds of other entries have also undergone major revisions, including yeast, barrel alternatives, climate change, and virtually all wine regions. Useful lists and statistics are appended, including controlled appellations and their permitted grape varieties, as well as wine production and consumption by country.

Illustrated with maps of every important wine region in the world, useful charts and diagrams, and stunning color photography, this Companion is unlike any other wine book, offering an understanding of wine in its many wider contexts - notably historical, cultural, geographic, and scientific - and serving as a truly companionable point of reference into which any wine-lover can dip, browse, and linger.


Features

  • A major new edition of the ultimate reference book on wine - fully revised and updated with information on emerging wine regions written by local experts
  • Almost 4,000 definitive articles on a breathtaking range of topics including over 400 new entries covering globalization, brands, precision viticulture, and co-fermentation
  • Edited by the award-winning international wine writer and broadcaster Jancis Robinson
  • Illustrated with maps and diagrams, accented with color photography and a stunning new page design, and enhanced with guides to controlled appellations and vintages


 

 

 

The Oxford Companion to Wine
西元前後各一世紀之義大利名白酒------多年後成為
flame/packing a punch --Galen 之言
成為美酒之代名  當時已毀
 現在的Cecubo酒不怎麼樣
 
 Empire of Pleasures : Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World-US-
ISBN:0415186242 (Hard cover book)
Dalby, Andrew /Publisher:Routledge Published 2000/11
 

Book Data

Full Description
This work explores the Romans' renowned taste for titillation and fulfilment of the senses, from Persia and Greece to France and Britain. It presents an analysis of the Romans' desire for food and wine and how this quest for the luxurious is woven into the literature, art, and culture.
This work runs through the literature of Imperial Rome - "Persica", the golden peaches whose Latin name pinpointed Persia as the source of their world-wide migration - caecubum, a fine, rare, dry red wine from Campanian vineyards that were once prized, afterwards neglected; these flavours were identified, evaluated and tasted in a single word.
In this book, the author explores the Romans' renowned taste for titillation and fulfilment of the senses, from Persia, Greece and Asia Minor to Spain, France and Britain. It presents a picturesque analysis of the Romans' extraordinary desire for food and wine and how this quest for the luxurious is woven into the literature, art, language and culture.
Baker&Taylor

Table of Contents
        List of illustrations                      vii
Preface                                            ix
  Introduction                                     1  (7)
    Quotations and references                      2  (1)
    Source material                                3  (5)
  Imperium sine fine                               8  (13)
    The vices of empire                            10 (2)
    The pleasures of empire                        12 (2)
    Roads and travel                               14 (7)
  Ausonia                                          21 (61)
    The land and its people                        21 (4)
    Rome's Italy                                   25 (5)
    Rome's neighbourhood                           30 (12)
    From Rome to Rhegium                           42 (17)
    The southern hinterland                        59 (9)
    The northern hinterland                        68 (14)
  Vesper                                           82 (36)
    Peoples of the West                            83 (5)
    Cisalpine Gaul and the mountain provinces      88 (6)
    Transalpine Gaul                               94 (5)
    Britain                                        99 (3)
    Spain                                          102(5)
    Africa                                         107(4)
    The islands                                    111(7)
  Aurora                                           118(60)
    Becoming Greek                                 120(6)
    People of the East: slaves and others          126(7)
    Transmarine wines                              133(6)
    Greece                                         139(3)
    Greek cities and islands                       142(12)
    North from Greece                              154(7)
    Asia and its hinterland                        161(7)
    Syria                                          168(4)
    Egypt                                          172(6)
  Barbaricum                                       178(31)
    Africa                                         178(4)
    Arabia                                         182(2)
    Armenia                                        184(2)
    Parthia and Persia                             186(5)
    India                                          191(6)
    Beyond India                                   197(2)
    China                                          199(1)
    Scythia and Dacia                              200(4)
    Germany and the far north                      204(5)
  Saeva urbs                                       209(34)
    Low Rome                                       213(9)
    High Rome                                      222(15)
    New Rome                                       237(6)
  The use of Empire                                243(30)
    The art of dining                              243(14)
    The art of courtship                           257(9)
    The art of being Roman                         266(7)
Notes                                              273(32)
Bibliography                                       305(5)
Index of ancient sources                           310(7)
Index                                              317
 
 
 

 

 

Reviews

"Without question the most useful wine book ever published." --Mike Steinberger, Slate.com
"Serious wine geeks know that 'the bible' for the past decade or so has been Jancis Robinson's The Oxford Companion To Wine . The third edition...is impeccably researched and full of well-known facts as well as interesting trivia."--Wine Enthusiast .
"This is a must-have book for wine geeks...highly recommended for anyone with more than a passing interest in wine."--Wine Spectator , "Top 100" issue.
"It's hard to come up with a wine question that you won't find answered here... My advice is simple. Buy it. Now. You'll be glad you did."--Wineloverspage.com.
"An invaluable resource for serious wine drinkers who never quench their thirst for learning about varietals, appellations, wine history, and vineyards."--Business Week .
"It's as addictive as the Internet."--Tara Q. Thomas, Wine & Spirits .
"The third edition of The Oxford Companion to Wine , edited by Jancis Robinson, is the one essential book for any wine-lover... the book is a necessity for those in the wine business, and it offers highly pleasurable browsing for anybody who is remotely curious about why wine is so compelling."--Eric Asimov, The New York Times
"It's a valuable reference book and great fun just to pick up and read."--Ben Giliberti, The Washington Post
"Unquestionably the world's most comprehensive wine resource... Best of all, this isn't a dry encyclopedia... employs a witty insider's tone."--Town & Country
Named one of "20 Essential Books to Build Your Culinary Library" by the James Beard Foundation


Product Details

840 pages; 32 color photographs & over 80 maps, charts & lines; ISBN13: 978-0-19-860990-2ISBN10: 0-19-860990-6

2012年9月25日 星期二

chateau wine

In the 16th century, the French landowner Michel de Montaigne retired to his chateau to write down and publish his thoughts and inadvertently invented the essay.




British-based pawnbroker, borro.com, recently lent $120,000 in exchange for 128 bottles of Chateau d’Yquem, which had an estimated worth of $250,000.
英國當鋪borro.com 最近就用估計價值約為25萬美元的128瓶伊肯名酒當抵押,借出了12萬美元。

château[châ・teau]

  • 発音記号[ʃætóu | –]

[名](複〜s, 〜x 〔-z〕)
1 (フランスの)城;(フランスの貴族の)大邸宅, 館.
2 ((しばしばC-))(フランスのBordeaux地方の)ぶどう園.
[フランス語. △CASTLE
chateau wine
[U]シャトーワイン:フランスBordeaux地方の特定のぶどう園で製造される.
 
 
 美銷歐葡萄酒掛名「酒莊」?法酒商反彈 批此舉欺騙消費者
〔編譯魏國金/綜合布魯塞爾24日外電報導〕歐盟應美國葡萄酒業者要求,提議會員國同意授權美方在出口至歐洲的葡萄酒酒瓶上標明「酒莊」(chateau)一詞。該案引起波爾多葡萄酒業者反彈,警告此舉不啻於「欺騙消費者」。
須來自單一莊園 才能掛名
目前標有「酒莊」的美國酒不能在歐盟會員國內銷售,因歐盟規定,「酒莊」葡萄酒必須來自單一莊園。
美要求解禁 尚未議決
歐盟27個會員國的農業部長原訂25日齊聚布魯塞爾,針對變更相關規範進行投票。但在歐盟執委會農業執委喬洛許24日與法國農業部長勒佛爾會面後,已排除立即做下裁定的可能。一名消息來源透露,25日將持續進行商討,而不會對該議題票決。
勒 佛爾坦承︰「法國特別堅守『酒莊』的名號,因為這對我們有特殊意義,但其他國家感受沒那麼深。我們的談判很艱困。」該議題在法國波爾多地區格外敏感,波爾 多葡萄酒協會(CIVB)主席豪薩特說︰「酒莊對我們來說,意味在單一莊園生產的酒,而美國的定義極寬鬆,若因貿易談判放棄此個原則,將令人遺憾。」
法 國波爾多酒莊聯盟(FGVB)主席加彭表示︰「美國人可能取自各地來的葡萄製造『酒莊』酒,價格當然便宜很多,而消費者可能抱持我方定義所代表的品質,購 買『酒莊』酒,結果買到的並非如此。」他強調,「酒莊」代表著對數百年傳統及品質的尊重,美方的要求「將完全敗壞、掏空相關意義」。
去年,美國葡萄酒中約34%出口至歐盟,該價值達4億7800萬美元,然而歐盟輸美葡萄酒價值站上22億美元,打上「酒莊」的頂級酒行情十分看俏。美國製酒產業企圖消除貿易障礙,以進一步推升外銷。

2012年9月19日 星期三

“雜類”葡萄酒的獨特魅力The Unique Charms Of 'Miscellaneous Wines'

“雜類”葡萄酒的獨特魅力The Unique Charms Of 'Miscellaneous Wines'

F. Martin Ramin for The Wall Street Journal, Styling by Anne Cardenas
從 左至右依次為﹕奧斯特塔格莊園希爾瓦娜老籐幹白﹔2010年Jean-Charles Girard-Madoux酒莊春寧葡萄酒﹔2010年Bruno Lupin Cuvee du Pepe薩瓦弗朗日胡賽特葡萄酒﹔2010年Dr. Frank Rkatsiteli白羽葡萄酒﹔2011年Terre Bianche Riviera Ligure di Ponente皮加托葡萄酒。

多數酒單都根據熱門產區或是葡萄的品種對葡萄酒加以分類﹐但是酒單的末尾常常還會再加上一類酒:它囊括了不易被歸為其中某一類的葡萄酒﹐常被稱作“雜類葡萄酒”(Miscellaneous Wines)(有些人也許會說這一名稱有些不大體面。)Most wine lists are organized according to popular regions or grapes, although an additional category is often tacked on at the end. This is where wines that won't easily fit in one place or another are assigned -- a category that's invariably and, some might say, ignominiously entitled 'Miscellaneous Wines.'

紅 葡萄酒和白葡萄酒都按照這種方式分類﹐其中白葡萄酒的分類可能還會把一些不相干的酒歸在一起﹐比如紐約白羽葡萄酒(Rkatsiteli)、利古利亞 (Liguria)的皮加托葡萄酒(Pigato)、西西里島格里洛葡萄酒(Grillo)以及法國薩瓦地區(Savoy)的一兩種雅貴葡萄酒 (Jacquere)。為什麼這些葡萄酒會被歸入一處呢?最有可能的解釋是篇幅有限──大多數餐館都不希望酒單過長﹐這常常也是考慮到了食客的想法:很少 有人會有足夠耐心來翻看一頁又一頁他們從未聽聞其名的葡萄釀制的酒或是他們不大可能遊歷的葡萄酒產區出產的酒。

發現“雜類”這個詞打動不 了顧客之後﹐一些酒水總監可能還會編造一個更討巧的名稱﹐其中“有趣味的葡萄酒”就是我經常看到的一個稱號﹐雖然波士頓No. 9 Park餐廳的酒水總監、獲得2012年度詹姆斯•比爾德葡萄酒獎項(James Beard wine program award)的凱特•西麗利耶(Cat Silirie)指出﹐這個特別的稱呼似乎暗示(除了這個名稱之外)其他所有方面都相當無趣。西麗利耶認為﹐這種分類降低了瓊瑤漿(Traminer)、 麝香葡萄(Muscat)和格德約(Godello)等葡萄酒的身價。(她本人按照產區和葡萄品種這兩種方式來設計酒單。)

我 不太確定被歸為“雜類”是否真的會拉低酒的身價﹐特別是自從我常常在這類酒中發現我想嘗試的酒之後就更不確定了。其中一個原因是價格問題﹐沒名氣沒品牌的 葡萄酒幾乎總是比名氣大、受推崇的葡萄酒便宜。如果你都不知道這種酒是什麼﹐你就不大可能花高價買它。(這當然也有例外﹐比如瓦倫蒂尼 (Valentini)出品的阿布魯佐棠比內洛白葡萄酒(Trebbiano from Abruzzo)雖不知名﹐但其價格幾乎可比勃艮第(Burgundy)一流莊園葡萄酒的價格。)

雜類葡萄酒可能是那種侍酒師非常喜歡、 感覺自己與其有特殊關聯的葡萄酒﹐特別是那些本身不大有賣點的酒。雜類葡萄酒一般也容易配餐﹐原因同上。(侍酒師極少喜歡不好配餐的葡萄酒。)儘管如此﹐ 總的說來﹐雜類葡萄酒似乎並沒有獲得廣泛關注或是大眾喜愛。這也正是我為什麼在本月早些時候開啟了一個適宜夏天的、全部都為“雜類”白葡萄酒的品酒之旅的 原因。

我首先來到了意大利和法國﹐這兩個國家出產了很多最終在酒單中被劃歸為“雜類”的葡萄酒。這一點也不讓人驚訝﹐因為單單意大利就出產數千種葡萄﹐法國擁有幾百種官方承認的品種各異的葡萄。

在 這兩個國家﹐知名的葡萄品種常常和無甚名氣的葡萄在一起培植。例如﹐在意大利的皮埃蒙特產區(Piedmont)﹐大家熟知的白葡萄品種有莫斯卡托 (Moscato)和嘉維(Gavi)﹐名氣小些的則有厄柏路絲(Erbaluce)和阿內斯(Arneis)等。法國東南部的薩瓦產區也是如此﹐雅貴和 白蒙得斯(Mondeuse Blanche)等白葡萄與更受歡迎、世界知名的灰皮諾葡萄(Pinot Gris)也是同生同長。

意大利 出產一大批世界級“雜類”白葡萄酒──實際上﹐意大利出產的不知名的白葡萄酒可以填滿一整張酒單。從北至南﹐整個意大利密集地種植著各類白葡萄﹐比如佩科 里諾(Pecorino)、阿斯品諾(Asprinio)、菲安諾(Fiano)、皮加托、卡塔拉托(Catarratto)和格里洛葡萄──這裡所列的 僅是其中的一小部分而已。得益於對本土出產的葡萄酒的興趣近來有所復蘇﹐這些葡萄成為了意大利如今最有趣味的一些葡萄酒的原料。

利古利亞 的皮加托葡萄素來是我的最愛之一。最近它被稱作是維蒙蒂諾(Vermentino)──一種更有名氣的葡萄品種──的遠親。布魯納(Bruna)或 Terre Bianche等此類頂尖釀酒商釀制的優質皮加托的口味尤為細膩﹐含有杏仁和柑橘的芳香。此外﹐優質皮加托變陳後的品質也會特別好。再往南去﹐西西里島和 坎帕尼亞(Campania)也出產大量優質的“雜類”葡萄﹐比如說口味勁爽的格里洛和具有獨特的榛子香味的菲安諾。

在法國東部﹐地處阿 爾卑斯山區的薩瓦出產的葡萄酒在近幾年開始備受歡迎﹐它們或許很快就會檔次上升跳出“雜類”的分類。薩瓦出產的葡萄酒的特色是酸度清冽適中﹐既有口感輕 盈、散發礦物香的氣味芬芳的葡萄酒(以雅貴葡萄釀成的白葡萄酒)﹐也有口感更為厚重、酒體也更加濃鬱的葡萄酒(以胡賽特(Roussette﹐亦稱阿爾迪 斯(Altesse))釀成的白葡萄酒)﹐用於配餐也非常不錯。此外﹐它們的價格也往往非常實惠﹐一些頂尖的薩瓦葡萄酒的價格比勃艮第村莊級酒的價格要便 宜﹐一瓶通常還不到20美元。薩瓦產區還沒有出現什麼大牌葡萄酒﹐現今當地最有名的釀酒商要數Pierre Boniface﹐其雅佩蒙葡萄酒(Apremont)很容易找到﹐口味也非常簡單。該地的一些釀酒商﹐比如Jean-Charles Girard-Madoux和Domaine Lupin還釀制一些口感更為複雜的葡萄酒。

當然﹐法國另外還有許多不知名的白葡萄酒。例 如﹐朗格多克(Languedoc)和羅訥地區(Rhone)出產的匹格普勒葡萄(Picpoul)便是一些口味清新簡單的白葡萄酒的原料。在阿爾薩斯地 區(Alsace)﹐莎斯拉(Chasselas)和希爾瓦娜(Sylvaner)等葡萄就種在像雷司令(Riesling)和瓊瑤漿 (Gewurztraminer)這樣的知名葡萄品種附近。莎斯拉和希爾瓦娜雖算不上特別珍貴﹐但是出自像安德烈•奧斯特塔格(Andre Ostertag)這樣的釀酒商之手的希爾瓦娜葡萄酒實際上能夠達到一種罕見的優良品質。奧斯特塔格出品的希爾瓦娜葡萄酒放在不鏽鋼桶內發酵釀制﹐具有一 種綿長的礦物香後味。其售價為22美元一瓶﹐比阿爾薩斯由知名葡萄品種釀制的葡萄酒的價格要便宜許多。

西班牙和葡萄牙也是高價值不知名葡 萄酒的產地。以西班牙加利西亞(Galicia)的佩內德斯(Penedes)和戈德拉(Godella)出產的沙雷洛葡萄(Xarel-lo)釀制的白 葡萄酒味美誘人﹐有時候可在品種豐富的酒單的雜類葡萄酒項中發現其蹤跡。葡萄牙杜羅河谷(Douro Valley)出產的高酸度白葡萄酒拉比加多(Rabigato)亦是如此。

美國是一個出產雜類葡萄酒並不多的國家(考慮到酒單上列出 “雜類”這一做法是由美國人普及開來的﹐這聽上去有些諷刺)。當然這也有例外﹐我最喜歡的兩種雜類白葡萄酒均產自紐約:其中一種是Channing Daughters出產的弗留利托凱幹白(Tocai Friulano)﹐它以弗留利葡萄釀制而成﹐口味清冽﹔另一種由Dr. Konstantin Frank Vinifera Wine Cellars以在芬格湖地區(Finger Lakes)種植的俄羅斯白羽葡萄釀制﹐具有礦物香味。

我 在Paumanok Winery的老板查爾斯•馬蘇德(Charles Massoud)(長島(Long Island)唯一的白詩南(Chenin blanc)便是出自其手)的陪同下品嘗了後一種酒。馬蘇德對這種酒頗為讚賞﹐於是我問他是否會考慮也釀制白羽﹐不過他予以了否認。他說他喜歡的酒有很多 ﹐但是他不想“失去重點”。

我的雜類葡萄酒品嘗之旅可算不上有重點﹐但是我還是在其中發現了很多美味的好酒。從阿爾薩斯的希爾瓦娜到薩瓦 的阿爾迪斯﹐從皮埃蒙特的阿內斯、德國的施埃博(Scheurebe)再到利古利亞的皮加托等等﹐我發現了一些風格鮮明的葡萄酒﹐它們既獨具特色﹐定價也 非常公道。如果雜類葡萄酒換個名稱的話﹐或許會有更多人願意點它。要不改名“冒險人士之酒”或者“也許你永遠不會考慮(但應該考慮)的酒”?我倒樂意把它 們稱作“我願意一次又一次品嘗的酒”。

2010年奧斯特塔格莊園希爾瓦娜老籐幹白

售價:22美元/瓶

安 德烈•奧斯特塔格或許是阿爾薩斯地區最獨特的釀酒商之一(也是最好的酒商之一)。他根據自己獨有的分類體系(果酒、皮埃爾酒、陳年酒等等)釀制了一系列多 種多樣的葡萄酒﹐並且從希爾瓦娜等本來比較普通的葡萄品種中提煉出了特色和複雜口味。這款幹白口感極佳﹐入口極其清新鮮爽。

2010年Jean-Charles Girard-Madoux酒莊春寧葡萄酒

售價:21美元/瓶

這款產自法國薩瓦地區的白葡萄酒由雅貴葡萄釀制而成﹐其口味勁爽﹐幾乎算得上是凜冽(想想夏布利酒(Chablis)就知道了)。它產自春寧村莊(Chignin﹐薩瓦最好的品牌之一)一個小型的新興酒莊﹐是一款非常不錯的開胃酒﹐也可與大多數海鮮或者貝類搭配。

2010年Bruno Lupin Cuvee du Pepe薩瓦弗朗日胡賽特葡萄酒

售價:27美元/瓶

薩 瓦地區是多種知名白葡萄酒的產地﹐其中毫無爭議的明星葡萄酒之一便是亦稱為阿爾迪斯的胡賽特。Bruno Lupin選用的葡萄產自弗朗日(Frangy﹐薩瓦的頂級葡萄園之一)﹐口感會讓人聯想起優質白詩南。這款具有礦物香的幹白口感醇厚馥鬱﹐風味濃厚。它 給我留下了深刻印象﹐價格也非常公道。

2010年Dr. Frank Rkatsiteli白羽葡萄酒

售價:18美元/瓶

在我的記憶中﹐能夠憑借在紐約芬格湖地區種植的俄羅斯葡萄成功打響名氣的釀酒商並不多(或者沒有?)。但是﹐Dr. Frank Rkatsiteli卻在上世紀60年代做到了﹐而且效果非常好。這款幹白非常不錯﹐具有綿長的礦物香後味。

2011年Terre Bianche Riviera Ligure di Ponente皮加托葡萄酒

售價:27美元/瓶

皮加托(維蒙蒂諾的遠親)是利古利亞(意大利西北海岸一個很小的地方)最重要的釀酒葡萄﹐而Terre Bianche長期以來一直被視為是該品種葡萄的頂尖釀酒商之一。這款酒口感柔和﹐堪稱醇美﹐具有獨特的花香味。

Lettie Teague

 Both reds and whites are grouped in this manner and the latter might include such disparate offerings as a New York Rkatsiteli, a Pigato from Liguria, a Sicilian Grillo and a Jacquere or two from the Savoy region of France. Why put such wines in the same place? The most likely explanation is space -- most restaurants don't want a wine list that's overly long, often because of the wine drinkers themselves. Not many people are patient enough to leaf through page after page of grapes they've never heard of or wine regions they're unlikely to visit.

Some wine directors, finding their customers aren't moved by the word 'miscellaneous,' might craft a more flattering title: 'Interesting Wines' is one I've seen fairly often, though as Cat Silirie, wine director of No. 9 Park in Boston, pointed out, that particular rubric would seem to imply that everything else is rather dull. Ms. Silirie, who won the 2012 James Beard wine program award, found this kind of categorization 'demeaning' to wines like Traminer, Muscat and Godello. (Ms. Silirie organizes her list according to both region and grape.)

I'm not sure if the miscellaneous category is actually demeaning, especially since I often find wines listed there that I want to try. One reason is price. The obscure and uncurated will almost always cost less than the well known and well placed. If you don't know what a wine is, you're unlikely to pay a high price for it. (There are exceptions of course -- for example, an obscure Trebbiano from Abruzzo made by Valentini can cost almost as much as a premier cru Burgundy.)

A miscellaneous wine is likely to be one that a sommelier loves and feels personally connected to, especially since it's a wine that's not likely to sell itself. A miscellaneous wine often pairs well with food -- for the same reason as above. (Sommeliers rarely favor non-food-friendly wine.) And yet miscellaneous wines, broadly speaking, don't seem to get a lot of attention or love. That's one reason why I embarked on a summer-friendly all-white-miscellaneous-wine tasting earlier this month.

I turned first to Italy and France, two countries that produce a lot of wines that end up in the miscellaneous section of wine lists. This is hardly surprising since there are thousands of different varietals in Italy alone and hundreds of different grapes officially recognized in France.

In both countries, famous grapes are often cultivated alongside lesser knowns. For example, in Italy's Piedmont region there are familiar white grapes like Moscato and Gavi, as well as lesser known varietals like Erbaluce and Arneis. Ditto the Savoy region in southeastern France, where white grapes like Jacquere and Mondeuse Blanche coexist with the more popular globe-trotting Pinot Gris.

But it's Italy that offers a veritable roll call of world-class 'miscellaneous' white grapes -- in fact, the obscure whites of Italy could fill an entire wine list. From north to south, the country is thickly planted with consonant-rich grapes like Pecorino, Asprinio, Fiano, Pigato, Catarratto and Grillo, to name just a (very) few. And thanks to a recent resurgence of interest in native varietals, these grapes are responsible for some of the most interesting wines made in Italy today.

The Pigato grape grown in Liguria has long been one of my favorites. Though it's recently been named a clonal cousin of Vermentino -- a far more famous grape -- a good Pigato from a top producer like Bruna or Terre Bianche can be even more nuanced, with aromas of almonds and citrus. A good Pigato can also age particularly well. Further south, in Sicily and Campania, there are lots of terrific 'miscellaneous' grapes, like the crisp Grillo and the ancient Fiano with its distinctive scent of hazelnuts.

The wines of Savoy, in the Alpine region of eastern France, have become so popular in recent years that they may be elevated beyond the miscellaneous category sometime soon. With a characteristic bright acidity and a profile that ranges from light and flowery with mineral notes (whites made from the Jacquere grape) to a richer, more rounded profile (wines made from Roussette aka Altesse), Savoy wines also pair well with food. They also tend to be very good deals; some top Savoy wines are priced at less than a generic bottle of village Burgundy, often under $20 a bottle. There aren't any famous names (yet) though one of the best-known Savoy producers is Pierre Boniface, whose Apremont bottling is fairly easy to find -- and to drink. There are even more complex offerings from producers like Jean-Charles Girard-Madoux and Domaine Lupin.

There are plenty of other pockets of French obscurity, to be sure. For example, in Languedoc and the Rhone, the Picpoul grape is the source of some fresh, uncomplicated whites. In Alsace, grapes like Chasselas and Sylvaner are planted near well-known grapes like Riesling and Gewurztraminer. While the first two aren't particularly prized, in the hands of a great producer like Andre Ostertag, Sylvaner can actually achieve a rare measure of distinction. The Ostertag Sylvaner is a stainless-steel-fermented wine with a long, mineral finish -- and at $22 a bottle, it's a lot cheaper than wines made from more recognizable Alsace grapes.

Spain and Portugal are also fine sources for worthy obscurities. The grapes Xarel-lo in the Penedes and Godella in Galicia produce appealing whites that can sometimes be found in the miscellaneous section of wide-ranging wine lists, as can Rabigato, a high-acidity white grape grown in Portugal's Douro Valley.

The United States is the one country that doesn't produce many miscellaneous wines (a bit of an irony considering we popularized the category on wine lists). There are exceptions, of course, and two of my favorites are both produced in New York: the Channing Daughters Tocai Friulano, a crisp dry white made from a Friulian grape, and a minerally white Rkatsiteli, a Russian grape grown by Dr. Konstantin Frank Vinifera Wine Cellars in the Finger Lakes district.

I tasted the latter in the company of Charles Massoud, owner of Paumanok Winery (where he makes Long Island's only Chenin Blanc). When Mr. Massoud commented favorably on the wine, I asked if he'd consider making a Rkatsiteli too. He demurred. There were many wines that he liked but he didn't want to 'lose focus.'

My miscellaneous tasting was far from focused but yielded lots of delicious results. From Alsace Sylvaner to Altesse from Savoy, Arneis in Piedmont, Scheurebe from Germany and Pigato in Liguria (and more), I found characterful wines that were as distinctive as they were well-priced. Perhaps more people would order from the miscellaneous section of a wine list if it were retitled. Wines for the Adventurous? Or Wines You'd Probably Never Consider (but Should). I'd call them Wines I'd Drink Again and Again.

OENOFILE

2010 Domaine Ostertag Les Vieilles Vignes de Sylvaner, $22

Andre Ostertag is probably one of the most unusual winemakers in Alsace (as well as one of the best). He makes a wide range of wines under his own personal classification system (Vins de Fruit, Vins de Pierre, Vins de Temps, etc.) and manages to wrest character and complexity out of an otherwise ordinary grape like Sylvaner. This wine is a zesty dry white that's wonderfully fresh and bright.

2010 Jean-Charles Girard-Madoux Chignin, $21

The Jacquere grape is the star of this beautifully crisp, almost steely (think Chablis) white from the Savoy region of France. Produced at a small, up-and-coming estate in the village of Chignin (one of the best Savoy appellations), it's a terrific aperitif or a match with most seafood or shellfish.

2010 Bruno Lupin Cuvee du Pepe Roussette de Savoie Frangy, $27

The Savoy region is home to several notable white grapes -- and one of the undisputed stars is Roussette aka Altesse. Bruno Lupin's version of the grape, produced in Frangy (one of the region's top crus), is reminiscent of a good Chenin Blanc: dry and minerally, yet rich, rather lush and full-bodied. It's an impressive wine at a very fair price.

2010 Dr. Frank Rkatsiteli, $18

There aren't many (any?) winemakers I can think of who would stake their reputations -- successfully -- on a Russian grape planted in New York's Finger Lakes. But that's what Dr. Rkatsiteli did back in the 1960s, to great effect. This is a lovely, dry white with a long, minerally finish.

2011 Terre Bianche Riviera Ligure di Ponente Pigato, $27

The Pigato grape (a clone of the more famous Vermentino) is the most important wine grape in Liguria (a tiny region on Italy's northwestern coast) and Terre Bianche has long been considered one of its top producers. This is a soft, almost savory white with distinctly flowery aromas.

2012年9月14日 星期五

金門高梁

金門高梁

金門酒廠/偶像劇包裝, 挑戰大陸茅台  
圖片來源:鍾士為 在二○一二年《天下》一千大製造業排名中,名列最會賺錢企業第一位。六十歲的金門酒廠,翻新形象、也衝高獲利。甕底老酒如何再造新局?
七月中旬的傍晚,金門縣水頭碼頭映著仍然刺眼的陽光,幾團陸客正準備搭上渡輪啟程回廈門,一片鬧哄哄。在拿著大聲公的導遊唱名時,手上拎著大包小包,扶著推車上一箱箱的貢糖、牛肉乾的陸客,興奮地看向門口。
這時,「酒鄉金門城」名產店員工,推著載滿金門高粱酒的推車,開始根據訂單上的名字發放,幾乎人手一袋五十八度金門高粱酒。
「便宜啊!」多數陸客對於金門高粱酒的印象是,「比茅台便宜幾倍的好喝白酒。」
今年是金門酒廠的六十週年。在二○一二年《天下》一千大調查製造業排名中,它是最會賺錢的企業。
去年,它的營收一百三十五億台幣,創下歷史新高,獲利率高達四四.二七%。事實上,從二○○九年開始,它都保持在製造業獲利率前五名,由金門縣政府近百分之百持股,獲利完全回饋金門鄉親。
在這個距離台灣本島兩百多公里、飛機航程一個小時的地方,走在路上,能偶爾聽見老收音機裡鄧麗君的歌聲,清亮但含蓄,陪襯著金門這個富有文化底蘊的歷史古城。
金門的金雞母就是金酒,更是當地最大的雇主。一千三百名員工中,有九成以上都是金門本地人,員工流動率不到一成。
「因為是金門人,所以我有一份使命感,」金門酒廠總經理吳秋穆說。
五十四歲的吳秋穆,臉上總帶著淺淺的微笑。去年二月,他才接下這家老牌企業,一年內就帶領團隊交出漂亮的成績單。



吳秋穆眼中的金門高粱酒,是「老天爺送的禮物」。金門高粱酒在台灣的白酒市佔率高達八成以上,主要競爭優勢還是產品本身。
走進金酒的釀酒廠,濃郁香味撲鼻。一個釀酒流程需要二十四天,期間浸泡、蒸煮、拌麴、發酵、蒸餾等手續,必須要用人去感覺溫度的變化、翻動。廠長黃延慶說,「一定要用手工,自動化對品質會有影響。」
釀好的酒還必須存放半年「純化」後,才能拿到市面上販售。
轉到包裝線,軌道上的高梁酒瓶匡噹匡噹地排列,接著會經過兩排發光的白色背板,讓員工檢視酒內是否含有雜質。
一瓶酒會通過四個人的雙眼,一天八小時下來,就必須檢查一萬八千瓶的高粱酒。
需要大量人力的工廠,是金酒數十年來的根基。
金酒年年營收成長、獲利高,但吳秋穆仍然很憂心,「高粱酒靠在地天然資源製作出來,並不難,但我還能賣多久?」
於是,金酒開始著手為老酒裝新瓶,吸引年輕與白領階層。
老酒新裝搶年輕市場
去年開始,吳秋穆在公司內部成立新產品會議。
因為大家白天忙碌,所以高階主管利用下班時間,針對某一個新品的酒瓶、口味一再挑剔。一週至少有三次會議。
二○一一年到今年,吳秋穆帶頭開發將近三十三款新品。行銷也更加活潑,搭配電影、戲劇曝光。
選擇偶像劇的原因是,「現在年輕人喝不習慣高酒精濃度的酒品,我們正嘗試與他們溝通,」吳秋穆解釋。

去年,歌手蕭敬騰主演的《殺手歐陽盆栽》,金酒便推出紀念酒款。今年秋季即將上檔的偶像劇《戀夏三十八度C》,在金門拍攝,金酒也推出限量三十八度高粱酒配合銷售。
「高粱酒最大的問題,是飲用者年齡偏高,」台酒流通事業部副總蔡秋桂,指出金酒與台酒的共同問題。
她並分析,國內白酒品牌更須面對國際性洋酒商的競爭。因為台灣近年飲酒趨勢,已逐漸轉向葡萄酒及威士忌酒。
金酒在台灣地區的經銷商,也配合推出廣告行銷。
二○○四年,維他露成為五十八度高粱酒的經銷商。二○一○年十月,黑松拿下三十八度高粱酒的經銷權。
五十八度高粱酒一向訴求「酒厚,感情才有夠」。黑松接手三十八度高粱酒後,拍攝年輕上班族在工作與生活上的挑戰廣告,連結到新品牌形象「給願意挑戰自己的人」。
「黑松幾乎可說是把三十八度金門高粱酒,當成自己的品牌來經營,」黑松酒類事業部經理王銘泉說。他們先後拍攝五支以上形象廣告,拓展消費者市場。
去年金酒總營收成長近一成,台灣地區的兩大經銷商,總營收高達七十五億元。吳秋穆分析,最主要是白領階級購買新品數增長。
陸客必買伴手禮
除塑造新形象有成,金酒另一大成長動能來自陸客市場。
以金門地區而言,去年高粱酒年銷售額大約三十八億元,相較前幾年整整多了十億元。
最主要是去年陸客自由行開始實行,搭配小三通,金門水頭碼頭每年帶來超過一百五十萬人次陸客。
「價格便宜、加上陸客口耳相傳,金門高粱就成為必買的伴手禮,」昇恆昌營業企劃部副理曹惠鈞分析,金門高粱酒是陸客到免稅店購買的第一選項。
下一步,吳秋穆希望將金酒推至像是大陸茅台等級的市場價格。
「茅台和我們年產量差不多時,產值是我們的八到十倍,」吳秋穆略為激動地說。
今年二月,金酒調漲六%的價格,是十七年來首度調價。「金酒要長期經營,要看獲利,不能只看營收,」吳秋穆強調。
漲價,不只為了提高獲利,也為不被市場需求逼著走。
「因為消費者有囤積的心理,現在很容易供不應求,」昇恆昌營業企劃部副理曹惠鈞觀察。
消費者囤積,讓去年產量已達兩千五百萬公升的金門高粱酒仍然缺貨,但產量已比前年高出一千萬公升。
居民、盤商大賺「囤積財」
原因在於金門當地居民持有「菸酒牌」,可以在每年三節時,以四千八百元買到一打高粱酒。這些每年特惠的酒,成為當地居民的另一種「財富」。
「在金門,不一定每個人都喝酒,但一定每家都囤酒,」一名廖姓計程車司機說。
走進金城鎮老街,十幾間金門本地居民開的店內,排放各種不同年份、瓶型的高粱酒。店員指著一瓶民國六十八年的酒說,「幾百塊錢的酒,現在要賣上萬了。」
除當地居民,更有盤商囤酒以翻倍價賣到中國。
早在二○○四年,金酒就是第一個在廈門、泉州等地設立多家專賣店的業者。去年廈門子公司的營收約八億元,相較前年,營收成長率高達八○%。
但吳秋穆估計,加上從台灣與金門本地平行輸入到大陸的量,可能至少有四十億元,佔金酒總營收近三成。
因為金門高粱價格較中國白酒便宜,賣到中國的訂價可以翻三、四倍,所以除觀光客每次攜帶回去販售外,許多盤商便積極囤酒賣到中國。
發展大陸市場是金酒的重要目標,吳秋穆開始擬定產品區隔策略。
例如,在金門地區銷售的酒品是六百毫升,同款酒在大陸就只販售五百毫升。去年光是在大陸,金酒就投入三億元拍攝廣告行銷,主打當地販售的酒品。
這些策略雖緊迫,但金酒身為公營單位,辦事效率往往受採購法限制。
去年金酒推出的「鴻福百壽酒」,紅色的陶瓷瓶身鑲金,上頭牡丹花栩栩如生。這款民國百年紀念酒由藝人江蕙代言,推出限量兩千瓶,半小時內就銷售完畢。但吳秋穆指著它苦笑說,「我只給它打七十分。」
產品的成本、品質,金酒往往不能完全掌握。採購前的公告期及採購後的行政流程,也總是拖累上架時間。
現在吳秋穆參與經建會「白酒產業發展專案」規劃,討論改善採購法,希望盡力補足剩下的三十分。
「賣酒不只是賣一瓶酒,一定要注入文化,它才會有生命價值,」要求完美的吳秋穆,正帶領金酒掙脫老企業的束縛,換上新裝。

2012年9月3日 星期一

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E-mail Newsletter "Highlighting JAPAN"
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No. 56 (September 3, 2012)  
<< COVER STORY >>  日本的酒文化  pp. 5-31

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